ICT

Domain Name System explained

len Alfred Ajibola - 02nd September, 2022 @ 10:54 AM

Topics in ICT

Introduction to routers in networking Wired router and wireless router explained What are core routers in networking? Virtual routers explained with its configuration Edge router explained with its types Domain Name System explained Types of computer network Functions of a router Computer scheme of work, SS1, First Term Computer scheme of work, SS1, Second Term Computer scheme of work, SS1, Third Term Introduction to computer networks Types of DNS server Open Systems Interconnect: Layers of the OSI Model Internet of Things (IoT), How IoT works, its advantages and challenges How to consume less data on android phone Best programming languages to learn The internet and world wide web explained Computer Hardware, Parts and Functions of Computer Hardware


Academic Questions in ICT

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

What is the first step towards disabling automatic image download on WhatsApp?

  • A. Click on the three dots on the top right hand corner

  • B. Click on the WhatsApp logo

  • C. Click on the settings icon on the top right corner

  • D. Click on the settings icon located on the to top-center of the app

  • E. Click directly on the storage and data icon located on the top right corner

  • F. Click on the mobile data usage icon located on the top right corner

The followings are ways to conserve data on android phones except _____.

  • A. Turning on data saving mode

  • B. Activating background apps

  • C. Use of Wi-Fi to update apps

  • D. Disable automatic image download on WhatsApp

  • E. Watch low resolution videos on youtube

  • F. Utilizing a reputable data saving app on google playstore

Twitter was launched in _____.

  • A. 2003

  • B. 2004

  • C. 2005

  • D. 2006

  • E. 2007

  • F. 2008

Due to the limitation of the Internet Protocol version 4 address, _____ was created.

  • A. IPv5

  • B. IPv6

  • C. IPv7

  • D. IPv8

  • E. IPv9

  • F. IPv10

The term _____ describes the billions of physical devices that will be connected to the internet.

  • A. Internet of Everything

  • B. Internet of Physical Devices

  • C. Internet of Things

  • D. Internet of Objects

  • E. Internetworking

  • F. Internetworking of Objects

A globally interconnected network system that utilizes TCP and IP to transmit data via various media is the _____.

  • A. World Wide Web (www)

  • B. Http

  • C. Https

  • D. Https://www

  • E. LAN

  • F. Internet

Power Supply Unit - Len Academy

The above image shows the _____ in a computer.

  • A. Expansion slot

  • B. Hard Disc Drive

  • C. Optical Drive

  • D. Power Supply Unit

  • E. Motherboard

  • F. Synchronous Dynamic Ram

The clock speed of a computer is the speed at which the _____.

  • A. HDD saves data

  • B. FDS saves data

  • C. SSD saves data

  • D. GPU receives and sends data

  • E. CPU processes data

  • F. RAM transfers data


Domain Name System (DNS):

Let me begin by stating that there are at least two ways to get to this website (Len Academy).

Apparently, the first and recommended way is to enter 'len.com.ng' on your web browser and you will be directed to this website (Len Academy). This is an easier method and apparently, the normal route to follow.

A second way is by typing some four sets of numbers separated by dots. This set of numbers is termed an IP Address. An instance is '10.102.18.11'. This method is a more technical route to follow, and is usually not recommended to internet users. However, professional networking engineers may access a network via this route for troubleshooting purposes.

Interestingly, the above paragraph (second way) is the ideal route that the internet is meant to work because IP address is the protocol of the internet. This is what the founders of the internet used in designing the internet’s connectivity.

The term 'IP Address' means Internet Protocol Address and this is found at the network layer of the OSI model.

Please read on the network layer of the OSI model here.


Now, if we had gone with the second way from the above paragraph, the internet in itself will become quite difficult for almost everyone to use because it wouldn’t be fun memorizing the billions of available IP addresses. In fact, the internet professionals knew this potential problem and thus decided to come up with the Domain Name System in 1983.

Please read the notable dates on internet evolution here.


Consider the following notable points:

  • This website on which you are on (len.com.ng) is ideally an IP address. However, the important thing here is the fact that you don’t need to know the IP address of Len Academy in order to access the website.

  • All you need know is the domain name for Len Academy's IP Address; and that's 'len.com.ng'. This is made possible via the Domain Name System or DNS.

  • The DNS is a protocol that translates a domain name into an IP address. You may simply consider it as the phonebook of the internet.

  • Simple put, consider the concept of a domain name as the name of a website. In this regard, len.com.ng is a domain name, google.com is a domain name, yahoo.com is a domain name and so on.


It is noteworthy to state that DNS works at layer seven or Application layer of the OSI model of networking and layer four of the TCP/IP stack.

Please read on the OSI model here.

 

How DNS works

When you type in your destination website (for instance, len.com.ng) on your computer or phone browser's Uniform Resource Locator (URL), your browser will attempt to first resolve the entered web address (len.com.ng) to its specific IP address.

Note: Always understand that routing on the internet is a function an IP address and technically not the domain name which you had entered.

Please read on routers and routing here.


After your computer or phone does a successful domain lookup; that is, searches for the IP address that had been mapped to the domain name (len.com.ng), the IP address that matches 'len.com.ng' is henceforth used to get you the web page contained in len.com.ng.

After the domain name (len.com.ng in this instance) had been resolved to an IP address via the domain name system, the DNS is therefore done with its job since that’s specifically what it was created to do: 'to resolve domain names to a corresponding IP address'. In this regard, len.com.ng could now be resolved to something like 192.168.0.100 (IP address) or the newer complex IPv6 address that looks something like '1201:bca0:11aa:1992::1:100b'.

The analogy as explained above indicates how all websites are accessed.

The point is: with DNS, you are more likely to remember len.com.ng or google.com or yahoo.com rather than some sets of numbers separated by dots (IP Address or IPv6 Address).

Please read on the types of DNS server here.


Again, think of it this way: You make use of names to save phone numbers so that you can easily recognize the owners of such numbers right? The same goes for DNS in mapping domain names to IP addresses; since one can easily remember domain names in comparison to IP addresses.


Another question is: 'what if the domain name that was entered is incorrect?'. As an instance, let’s say 'len.cm.ng' was entered by a user instead of 'len.com.ng'.

To answer the above question, since 'len.cm.ng' isn't matched to any IP Address, that will imply that 'len.cm.ng' cannot be resolved to any IP address. In this regard, the browser will respond with an error message, while also giving you some suggestions on how to go about the issue.

Below is an error message from an internet explorer browser:

Browser Error Message - Len Academy


Note: We have got millions of DNS servers around the world. If one of the servers doesn't know how to translate a specific domain name, it will question the next server until the appropriate IP address for such domain name is returned.

Please read on the internet of things (IoT) here.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 10 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.

Please contact Alfred via the above whatsapp link for a comprehensive online academic coaching in Biology, Chemistry, Basic Science and ICT


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Amazing facts in ICT

YouTube is a video-sharing platform which commenced operations on February 14, 2005 (Valentine's day). Three former PayPal employees -> Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim created the YouTube service (as a dating app) until Google bought it in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion

Smoking near a Mac device - Len Academy

Smoking near an Apple (Mac) computer voids the warranty.

When you add /4 to the end of Facebook's URL, it will take you to Mark Zuckerberg.

You can try it on you own; or better still, try the link below:

facebook.com/4

Apple iPad retina - Len Academy

Apple iPad retina display is actually manufactured by Samsung

The big five tech companies of the world as at 2018 are :

Google

Apple

Facebook

Amazon

Microsoft


NOTABLE POINTS IN ICT

Computer Network is a group of computers that are linked to each other such that they can share resources.

Generally, these groups of computers that form a network are called nodes.

Some of these nodes will function to store information which will be served to other computers. The nodes that function to store and serve such information are known as servers.

Some of the computers (nodes) will request information from the server. The computers that functions to request information from the server are known as clients.

Please read on computer networks here

The internet and the world wide web (www) isn't the same thing.

The internet is formed from the joining or linking of different networks.

For instance, Google's network, Facebook's network and Yahoo's network are among the many other networks that make up the internet.

World Wide Web on the other hand is a collection of linked pages (for instance, this page you're on).

There are actually billions of linked pages in various servers around the world.

You require the internet and a web browser to get to access the World Wide Web

Please read more on the internet here

Types of Networks based on geographical size

  1. Personal Area Network (PAN): An instance is a Bluetooth connection between two devices.

  2. Local Area Network (LAN): This is the network under a single administrative control and usually within a building.

  3. Campus Area Network (CAN): This network connects various devices within a campus or college

  4. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): This network connects two offices or companies within a city.

  5. Wide Area Network (WAN): This network connects devices throughout the globe. The internet is a typical example of a WAN.

You can read more on the types of network based on geographical size here

Functions of a router:

  1. They ensure that data (preferably called packets) make it to their intended destination.
  2. They ensure the security of data to some extent.
  3. When a network becomes too big within a Local Area Network (LAN), routers are used to separate such networks.
  4. They connect different networks. This is the very reason why you are able to access the internet. (The internet's network and your service provider's network are different; but thanks to the router for connecting them).
  5. Multiple devices in the home or office can access the internet through the router, (and with a single IP Address). The term associated with this process is referred to a Network Address Translation (NAT)

Please read on types and functions of router here