Virtual routers explained with its configuration

len Alfred Ajibola - 19th September, 2022 @ 02:31 PM

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The followings are ways to conserve data on android phones except _____.

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Virtual Routers:

Virtual routers are standby routers that commence their function when the active router fails. It is noteworthy to state that virtual routers are based on a software routing framework which enables the host machine to perform as a typical hardware router over a Local Area Network (LAN).

Please read on the concept of computer network here


Since the virtual router is configured with networking commands through the device software, it therefore implies that routing functions will always continue even when the active or forwarding router fails. Similarly, when the standby or backup router fails, the active router will automatically continue the routing process of packets. This is shown in the image below:

Virtual Router - Len Academy

Please read on computer hardware here

From the above image, the virtual router (seen in the center) is not a physical device. In reality, it had been configured in the two hardware routers (that is, active and standby routers respectively). Simple put, the virtual router exists in the software of both routers. Therefore, when one router fails, the other automatically forwards packet.


Virtual routers utilizes an open standard protocol called Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol(VRRP). In Cisco routers, this is a proprietary virtual routing protocol called the 'Hot Standby Router Protocol' (HSRP). Meanwhile, always understand that the creation of a virtual router commences with the configuration of each with a unique virtual router identifier.

Please read the introduction to routers here


In an attempt to achieve 100% uptime, virtual routers are recommended especially in institutions that push critical data; for instance, financial and medical data. This is so because the routing processes are often backed by two physical routers, where one acts as the main router and performs typical routing functions. However, the second router provides redundancy by allowing the flow of packets in case of a fail-over on the main router.

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As a networking technician, software configuration skills of the hardware router are major requirements towards the creation of virtual routers. As stated earlier, the routing protocols VRRP (open standard) or 'HSRP' (Cisco proprietary) may be utilized depending on the manufacturer of the hardware device.

Below is the configuration commands for the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)

  1. To enter privileged EXEC mode:

  2. To enter global configuration mode:
    router#configure terminal

  3. To enter interface configuration mode:
    router(config)#interface interface

  4. IP address configuration on the interface.
    router(config-if)#ip address address netmask

  5. VRRP virtual IP address configuration command:
    router(config-if)#vrrp group-number ip ip-address

    The above address must be in the same subnet as the interface IP address (primary or secondary).

  6. VRRP priority configuration command (optional):
    router(config-if)#vrrp group-number priority priority

    The usable values for the priority are 1 through 254.

  7. VRRP preempt configuration command (optional):
    router(config-if)#vrrp group-number preempt

    Understand that VRRP preemption is enabled by default.

You can read on core routers here

After the above configuration is made on the respective active and standby routers, this software configuration command backed by the configured physical routers can now act by advertising a virtual router as the default gateway to the nodes or end devices of the network.

Worthy of mention is the fact that a virtual router may also be enabled on end devices like computers or servers. Through this process, the end devices are made to have the capabilities of a router. Such hardware devices can now route packets within the LAN via a software application.

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Computer Network is a group of computers that are linked to each other such that they can share resources.

Generally, these groups of computers that form a network are called nodes.

Some of these nodes will function to store information which will be served to other computers. The nodes that function to store and serve such information are known as servers.

Some of the computers (nodes) will request information from the server. The computers that functions to request information from the server are known as clients.

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The internet and the world wide web (www) isn't the same thing.

The internet is formed from the joining or linking of different networks.

For instance, Google's network, Facebook's network and Yahoo's network are among the many other networks that make up the internet.

World Wide Web on the other hand is a collection of linked pages (for instance, this page you're on).

There are actually billions of linked pages in various servers around the world.

You require the internet and a web browser to get to access the World Wide Web

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Types of Networks based on geographical size

  1. Personal Area Network (PAN): An instance is a Bluetooth connection between two devices.

  2. Local Area Network (LAN): This is the network under a single administrative control and usually within a building.

  3. Campus Area Network (CAN): This network connects various devices within a campus or college

  4. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): This network connects two offices or companies within a city.

  5. Wide Area Network (WAN): This network connects devices throughout the globe. The internet is a typical example of a WAN.

You can read more on the types of network based on geographical size here

Functions of a router:

  1. They ensure that data (preferably called packets) make it to their intended destination.
  2. They ensure the security of data to some extent.
  3. When a network becomes too big within a Local Area Network (LAN), routers are used to separate such networks.
  4. They connect different networks. This is the very reason why you are able to access the internet. (The internet's network and your service provider's network are different; but thanks to the router for connecting them).
  5. Multiple devices in the home or office can access the internet through the router, (and with a single IP Address). The term associated with this process is referred to a Network Address Translation (NAT)

Please read on types and functions of router here