Topics in ICTIntroduction to routers in networking Wired router and wireless router explained What are core routers in networking? Virtual routers explained with its configuration Edge router explained with its types Domain Name System explained Types of computer network Functions of a router Computer scheme of work, SS1, First Term Computer scheme of work, SS1, Second Term Computer scheme of work, SS1, Third Term Introduction to computer networks Types of DNS server Open Systems Interconnect: Layers of the OSI Model Internet of Things (IoT), How IoT works, its advantages and challenges How to consume less data on android phone Best programming languages to learn The internet and world wide web explained Computer Hardware, Parts and Functions of Computer Hardware
Academic Questions in ICT
DNS belongs to layer _____ of the Open System Interconnect (OSI) model of networking.
Which of the following DNS servers receive queries directly from computers, phones and other client devices?
A. Root Nameserver
B. Top Level Domain (TLD) Nameserver
C. Bottom Level Domain (BLD) Nameserver
D. Authoritative Nameserver
E. Direct Nameserver
F. Recursive DNS Server
The uppermost layer of the Open System Interconnect (OSI) model of networking is the _____ layer.
E. Data Link
Concerning the internet of things, which of the following statement is incorrect?
A. Humans will become connected to the internet through the internet of things
B. It refers to the billions of physical devices that will be connected to the internet
C. Big data is associated with the internet of things
D. Presently, we have more humans living on earth that things connected to the internet
E. China, North America and Europe accounts for over two thirds of internet connected things
F. The ultimate goal of the Internet of things will be made a reality through IPv6
What is the first step towards disabling automatic image download on WhatsApp?
A. Click on the three dots on the top right hand corner
B. Click on the WhatsApp logo
C. Click on the settings icon on the top right corner
D. Click on the settings icon located on the to top-center of the app
E. Click directly on the storage and data icon located on the top right corner
F. Click on the mobile data usage icon located on the top right corner
The followings are ways to conserve data on android phones except _____.
A. Turning on data saving mode
B. Activating background apps
C. Use of Wi-Fi to update apps
D. Disable automatic image download on WhatsApp
E. Watch low resolution videos on youtube
F. Utilizing a reputable data saving app on google playstore
Twitter was launched in _____.
Due to the limitation of the Internet Protocol version 4 address, _____ was created.
Virtual routers are standby routers that commence their function when the active router fails. It is noteworthy to state that virtual routers are based on a software routing framework which enables the host machine to perform as a typical hardware router over a Local Area Network (LAN).
Please read on the concept of computer network here
Since the virtual router is configured with networking commands through the device software, it therefore implies that routing functions will always continue even when the active or forwarding router fails. Similarly, when the standby or backup router fails, the active router will automatically continue the routing process of packets. This is shown in the image below:
Please read on computer hardware here
From the above image, the virtual router (seen in the center) is not a physical device. In reality, it had been configured in the two hardware routers (that is, active and standby routers respectively). Simple put, the virtual router exists in the software of both routers. Therefore, when one router fails, the other automatically forwards packet.
Virtual routers utilizes an open standard protocol called Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol(VRRP). In Cisco routers, this is a proprietary virtual routing protocol called the 'Hot Standby Router Protocol' (HSRP). Meanwhile, always understand that the creation of a virtual router commences with the configuration of each with a unique virtual router identifier.
Please read the introduction to routers here
In an attempt to achieve 100% uptime, virtual routers are recommended especially in institutions that push critical data; for instance, financial and medical data. This is so because the routing processes are often backed by two physical routers, where one acts as the main router and performs typical routing functions. However, the second router provides redundancy by allowing the flow of packets in case of a fail-over on the main router.
Please read on top programming languages to learn here
As a networking technician, software configuration skills of the hardware router are major requirements towards the creation of virtual routers. As stated earlier, the routing protocols VRRP (open standard) or 'HSRP' (Cisco proprietary) may be utilized depending on the manufacturer of the hardware device.
Below is the configuration commands for the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)
To enter privileged EXEC mode:
To enter global configuration mode:
To enter interface configuration mode:
IP address configuration on the interface.
router(config-if)#ip address address netmask
VRRP virtual IP address configuration command:
router(config-if)#vrrp group-number ip ip-address
The above address must be in the same subnet as the interface IP address (primary or secondary).
VRRP priority configuration command (optional):
router(config-if)#vrrp group-number priority priority
The usable values for the priority are 1 through 254.
VRRP preempt configuration command (optional):
router(config-if)#vrrp group-number preempt
Understand that VRRP preemption is enabled by default.
You can read on core routers here
After the above configuration is made on the respective active and standby routers, this software configuration command backed by the configured physical routers can now act by advertising a virtual router as the default gateway to the nodes or end devices of the network.
Worthy of mention is the fact that a virtual router may also be enabled on end devices like computers or servers. Through this process, the end devices are made to have the capabilities of a router. Such hardware devices can now route packets within the LAN via a software application.
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Amazing facts in ICT
The logo for gmail was designed the night before it was launched
Coca Cola owns all the domain names (website names) that can be read as ahh. They include: ahh.com, ahhh.com, ahhhh.com, ahhhhh.com, ahhhhhh.com and so on..., all the way up to 62 'h's!
YouTube is a video-sharing platform which commenced operations on February 14, 2005 (Valentine's day). Three former PayPal employees -> Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim created the YouTube service (as a dating app) until Google bought it in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion
Smoking near an Apple (Mac) computer voids the warranty.
When you add /4 to the end of Facebook's URL, it will take you to Mark Zuckerberg.
You can try it on you own; or better still, try the link below:
Apple iPad retina display is actually manufactured by Samsung
The big five tech companies of the world as at 2018 are :
Notable points in ICT
Python is one of the most popular programming languages, and will still remain relevant for a long time.
Python can be used for almost every kind of project including web application, machine learning, mobile and desktop applications, networking servers, APIs, scrapers, application’s backend and so on.
There is a great availability of third-party libraries for the python language. For this reason, it becomes one one of the easiest languages to learn as a beginner.
Believe it or not, Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) still remains one of the most popular backend language for web applications, even though it is currently facing a stiff competition from python language.
Content Management Systems (CMS) like wordpress and drupal are written in PHP for its backend. Interestingly, some of facebook’s backend were also written in PHP.
As at 2019, the backend of more than 40% of active websites are powered with PHP. In fact, Len Academy is also powered by PHP for its backend.
If you wish to manipulate databases via Structured Query Language (SQL) with a programming language that has dynamic capabilities, then PHP is your language of choice.
Below are notable dates on internet evolution:
1983: The Domain Name System (DNS) created the '.com .edu .gov .org and .net' systems for naming websites
1985: The first registered domain name - 'symbolics.com' came into existence
1992: The first audio and video were uploaded over the internet
1992: The phrase 'surfing the Internet' became popular
1993: The number of websites reached 600
1993: White House and United Nations go online
1994: Microsoft creates a Web browser for Windows 95
1994: Yahoo! is created by Jerry Yang and David Filo
1995 Amazon and eBay were launched online
1996: 'The Dancing Baby' becomes the first viral internet video
1997: Netflix is founded by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph
1998: Google search engine came into existence
2003: The worm 'SQL Slammer' spread over the internet within 10 minutes
2004: Facebook goes online
Computer hardware is the collection of physical parts of a computer system.
Physical parts of a computer are those parts that you can see and touch. It may also be referred to as the 'equipment of the computer'.
When the computer case is opened (with a screwdriver), one would see the different hardware components inside of it. It's important to state that some other hardware components are present outside the computer case; and these are termed peripherals.
Below are hardware components seen inside the computer case:
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)
Power supply Unit (PSU)
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slots
Network Interface Card (NIC)
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Solid State Drive (SSD)
Optical Disc Drives (external present)
USB port, PS2 port, Ethernet port and other ports
Expansion Ports / Slots
Hardware components seen outside the computer case are called peripherals. The peripherals are grouped into the following:
Input devices: They provide information to the computer.
Output devices: Brings out information from the computer.
Storage devices: They store information or data.
Below are examples of some peripherals:
Touch Pad (input)
Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash drive or memory card (storage)
Hard disc drive (storage)