ICT

Introduction to routers in networking

len Alfred Ajibola - 19th September, 2022 @ 02:38 PM

Topics in ICT

Introduction to routers in networking Wired router and wireless router explained What are core routers in networking? Virtual routers explained with its configuration Edge router explained with its types Domain Name System explained Types of computer network Functions of a router Computer scheme of work, SS1, First Term Computer scheme of work, SS1, Second Term Computer scheme of work, SS1, Third Term Introduction to computer networks Types of DNS server Open Systems Interconnect: Layers of the OSI Model Internet of Things (IoT), How IoT works, its advantages and challenges How to consume less data on android phone Best programming languages to learn The internet and world wide web explained Computer Hardware, Parts and Functions of Computer Hardware


Academic Questions in ICT

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

What is the first step towards disabling automatic image download on WhatsApp?

  • A. Click on the three dots on the top right hand corner

  • B. Click on the WhatsApp logo

  • C. Click on the settings icon on the top right corner

  • D. Click on the settings icon located on the to top-center of the app

  • E. Click directly on the storage and data icon located on the top right corner

  • F. Click on the mobile data usage icon located on the top right corner

The followings are ways to conserve data on android phones except _____.

  • A. Turning on data saving mode

  • B. Activating background apps

  • C. Use of Wi-Fi to update apps

  • D. Disable automatic image download on WhatsApp

  • E. Watch low resolution videos on youtube

  • F. Utilizing a reputable data saving app on google playstore

Twitter was launched in _____.

  • A. 2003

  • B. 2004

  • C. 2005

  • D. 2006

  • E. 2007

  • F. 2008

Due to the limitation of the Internet Protocol version 4 address, _____ was created.

  • A. IPv5

  • B. IPv6

  • C. IPv7

  • D. IPv8

  • E. IPv9

  • F. IPv10

The term _____ describes the billions of physical devices that will be connected to the internet.

  • A. Internet of Everything

  • B. Internet of Physical Devices

  • C. Internet of Things

  • D. Internet of Objects

  • E. Internetworking

  • F. Internetworking of Objects

A globally interconnected network system that utilizes TCP and IP to transmit data via various media is the _____.

  • A. World Wide Web (www)

  • B. Http

  • C. Https

  • D. Https://www

  • E. LAN

  • F. Internet

Power Supply Unit - Len Academy

The above image shows the _____ in a computer.

  • A. Expansion slot

  • B. Hard Disc Drive

  • C. Optical Drive

  • D. Power Supply Unit

  • E. Motherboard

  • F. Synchronous Dynamic Ram

The clock speed of a computer is the speed at which the _____.

  • A. HDD saves data

  • B. FDS saves data

  • C. SSD saves data

  • D. GPU receives and sends data

  • E. CPU processes data

  • F. RAM transfers data


What are Routers?

You are able to get to this website (len.com.ng) because some networking devices have been strategically positioned somewhere around the world. These devices helps to move or route data from one computer (termed client) to another computer (called the server) where the information is stored.

It is important to state that the networking devices (routers) must be properly configured so that the sent data (generally referred to as packets) can arrive at their proper destinations.

Inside the packets are all the layers 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 details of the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model of networking. In order to better comprehend routers, you will need some knowledge on computer networks and the OSI model of networking.

Please read on the OSI model of networking here.


The hardware (networking) device that moves data in the form of packets between different devices (clients and servers), thus allowing network communication are called routers.

Routers are also called layer 3 devices. The is because they are found at layer 3 of the OSI model of networking.

Please read on wired and wireless routers here.


Below is an image of the Cisco RV325 Dual Gigabit WAN VPN router:

Cisco Router - Len Academy

Please read on the internet of things here.


We find routers in places where connections to networks are required. In this regard, they can be found in banks, campuses, corporate offices, governmental institutions, IT centers and so on.

Now, let's consider this question below:

Take a moment to imagine what happens behind the scenes (how data is transferred) when you visit a bank’s branch in order to check your account statement?

Below is the summary to the answer pertaining the above question:


  • Behind the scenes, the bank’s branch is connected to its headquarters (HQ) through one or more routers.

  • These routers must have been properly configured by a networking specialist so that communication can happen between the bank’s branch and headquarters. For now, think of a network specialist as one who is trained and certified to manage, configure and troubleshoot networks. To attain such skill, one may choose to read a professional course like the 'Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) which happens to be one of the network certifications from Cisco.

  • Now, the accountant enters your account details on his or her computer (called the client computer) and hits the enter key. Meanwhile, note that your account details becomes a part of the data as contained in the packet. The client computer generates this packet from what was entered (input) by the accountant.

  • The client computer speedily relays the packet (containing the account details and other information) to a router which receives and analyzes it.

  • If the information in the packets are in sync with the router's configuration, the router forwards it to another router and this process continues until the packets get to its destination, that is: the server located in the bank’s headquarters.

  • The server sends a reply containing some detailed information on the account holder. A reverse process gets this reply to the client computer (from the branch office) which initiated this process, thanks to the router.

  • Please read on the domain name service (DNS) here.


The image below shows a network communication system between various Local Area Networks (LANs) via the Wide Area Network (WAN).


Wide Area Network - Len Academy

Please read on edge routers here.


In order to comprehend the above diagram, an understanding on the concept of computer network is required.

Please read on computer networks here.


Note the following on salient points on routers or layer 3 devices:

  1. It is the function of the router to receive, analyze and route incoming packets to the destination network.

  2. The router can drop packets when its configurations are not properly met by the incoming packets. This is probably why we can't access the internet from our service provider whenever we are yet to subscribe to a data package.

  3. The router receives, analyzes and routes incoming packets from its ingress interface to another network through its egress interface. Ingress interface is the port on which packets enters the router while egress interface refers to the port where packets exit the router.

  4. The router can also drop packets according to its Quality of Service (QoS) configuration.


Cisco made its first router in 1978.

Please read on the notable dates of internet evolution here

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 10 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.

Please contact Alfred via the above whatsapp link for a comprehensive online academic coaching in Biology, Chemistry, Basic Science and ICT


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Amazing facts in ICT

YouTube is a video-sharing platform which commenced operations on February 14, 2005 (Valentine's day). Three former PayPal employees -> Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim created the YouTube service (as a dating app) until Google bought it in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion

Smoking near a Mac device - Len Academy

Smoking near an Apple (Mac) computer voids the warranty.

When you add /4 to the end of Facebook's URL, it will take you to Mark Zuckerberg.

You can try it on you own; or better still, try the link below:

facebook.com/4

Apple iPad retina - Len Academy

Apple iPad retina display is actually manufactured by Samsung

The big five tech companies of the world as at 2018 are :

Google

Apple

Facebook

Amazon

Microsoft


NOTABLE POINTS IN ICT

Computer Network is a group of computers that are linked to each other such that they can share resources.

Generally, these groups of computers that form a network are called nodes.

Some of these nodes will function to store information which will be served to other computers. The nodes that function to store and serve such information are known as servers.

Some of the computers (nodes) will request information from the server. The computers that functions to request information from the server are known as clients.

Please read on computer networks here

The internet and the world wide web (www) isn't the same thing.

The internet is formed from the joining or linking of different networks.

For instance, Google's network, Facebook's network and Yahoo's network are among the many other networks that make up the internet.

World Wide Web on the other hand is a collection of linked pages (for instance, this page you're on).

There are actually billions of linked pages in various servers around the world.

You require the internet and a web browser to get to access the World Wide Web

Please read more on the internet here

Types of Networks based on geographical size

  1. Personal Area Network (PAN): An instance is a Bluetooth connection between two devices.

  2. Local Area Network (LAN): This is the network under a single administrative control and usually within a building.

  3. Campus Area Network (CAN): This network connects various devices within a campus or college

  4. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): This network connects two offices or companies within a city.

  5. Wide Area Network (WAN): This network connects devices throughout the globe. The internet is a typical example of a WAN.

You can read more on the types of network based on geographical size here

Functions of a router:

  1. They ensure that data (preferably called packets) make it to their intended destination.
  2. They ensure the security of data to some extent.
  3. When a network becomes too big within a Local Area Network (LAN), routers are used to separate such networks.
  4. They connect different networks. This is the very reason why you are able to access the internet. (The internet's network and your service provider's network are different; but thanks to the router for connecting them).
  5. Multiple devices in the home or office can access the internet through the router, (and with a single IP Address). The term associated with this process is referred to a Network Address Translation (NAT)

Please read on types and functions of router here