Introduction to routers in networking

len Alfred Ajibola - 19th September, 2022 @ 02:38 PM

Topics in ICT

Introduction to routers in networking Wired router and wireless router explained What are core routers in networking? Virtual routers explained with its configuration Edge router explained with its types Domain Name System explained Types of computer network Functions of a router Computer scheme of work, SS1, First Term Computer scheme of work, SS1, Second Term Computer scheme of work, SS1, Third Term Introduction to computer networks Types of DNS server Open Systems Interconnect: Layers of the OSI Model Internet of Things (IoT), How IoT works, its advantages and challenges How to consume less data on android phone Best programming languages to learn The internet and world wide web explained Computer Hardware, Parts and Functions of Computer Hardware

Academic Questions in ICT

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

DNS belongs to layer _____ of the Open System Interconnect (OSI) model of networking.

  • A. One

  • B. Two

  • C. Three

  • D. Four

  • E. Five

  • F. Six

  • G. Seven

Which of the following DNS servers receive queries directly from computers, phones and other client devices?

  • A. Root Nameserver

  • B. Top Level Domain (TLD) Nameserver

  • C. Bottom Level Domain (BLD) Nameserver

  • D. Authoritative Nameserver

  • E. Direct Nameserver

  • F. Recursive DNS Server

The uppermost layer of the Open System Interconnect (OSI) model of networking is the _____ layer.

  • A. Physical

  • B. Application

  • C. Network

  • D. Transport

  • E. Data Link

  • F. Presentation

Concerning the internet of things, which of the following statement is incorrect?

  • A. Humans will become connected to the internet through the internet of things

  • B. It refers to the billions of physical devices that will be connected to the internet

  • C. Big data is associated with the internet of things

  • D. Presently, we have more humans living on earth that things connected to the internet

  • E. China, North America and Europe accounts for over two thirds of internet connected things

  • F. The ultimate goal of the Internet of things will be made a reality through IPv6

What is the first step towards disabling automatic image download on WhatsApp?

  • A. Click on the three dots on the top right hand corner

  • B. Click on the WhatsApp logo

  • C. Click on the settings icon on the top right corner

  • D. Click on the settings icon located on the to top-center of the app

  • E. Click directly on the storage and data icon located on the top right corner

  • F. Click on the mobile data usage icon located on the top right corner

The followings are ways to conserve data on android phones except _____.

  • A. Turning on data saving mode

  • B. Activating background apps

  • C. Use of Wi-Fi to update apps

  • D. Disable automatic image download on WhatsApp

  • E. Watch low resolution videos on youtube

  • F. Utilizing a reputable data saving app on google playstore

Twitter was launched in _____.

  • A. 2003

  • B. 2004

  • C. 2005

  • D. 2006

  • E. 2007

  • F. 2008

Due to the limitation of the Internet Protocol version 4 address, _____ was created.

  • A. IPv5

  • B. IPv6

  • C. IPv7

  • D. IPv8

  • E. IPv9

  • F. IPv10

What are Routers?

You are able to get to this website (len.com.ng) because some networking devices have been strategically positioned somewhere around the world. These devices helps to move or route data from one computer (termed client) to another computer (called the server) where the information is stored.

It is important to state that the networking devices (routers) must be properly configured so that the sent data (generally referred to as packets) can arrive at their proper destinations.

Inside the packets are contained the details of layers 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 protocols of the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model of networking. In order to better comprehend routers, you will need some knowledge on computer networks and the OSI model of networking.

Please read on the OSI model of networking here.

The hardware (networking) device that moves data in the form of packets between different devices (clients and servers), thus allowing network communication are called routers.

Routers are also called layer 3 devices. This is appropriately so because they are found at layer 3 of the OSI model of networking.

Please read on wired and wireless routers here.

Below is an image of the Cisco RV325 Dual Gigabit WAN VPN router:

Cisco Router - Len Academy

Please read on the internet of things here.

We find routers in places where connections to networks are required. In this regard, they can be found in banks, campuses, corporate offices, governmental institutions, IT centers and so on.

Now, let's consider this question below:

Take a moment to imagine what happens behind the scenes (how data is transferred) when you visit a bank’s branch in order to check your account statement?

Below is the summary to the answer pertaining the above question:

  • Behind the scenes, the bank’s branch is connected to its headquarters (HQ) through one or more routers.

  • These routers must have been properly configured by a networking specialist so that communication can happen between the bank’s branch and headquarters. For now, think of a network specialist as one who is trained and certified to manage, configure and troubleshoot networks. To attain such skill, one may choose to read a professional course like the 'Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) which happens to be one of the network certifications from Cisco.

  • Now, the accountant enters your account details on his or her computer (called the client computer) and hits the enter key. Meanwhile, note that your account details becomes a part of the data as contained in the packet. The client computer generates this packet from what was entered (input) by the accountant.

  • The client computer speedily relays the packet (containing the account details and other information) to a router which receives and analyzes it.

  • If the information in the packets are in sync with the router's configuration, the router forwards it to another router and this process continues until the packets get to its destination, that is: the server located in the bank’s headquarters.

  • The server sends a reply containing some detailed information on the account holder. A reverse process gets this reply to the client computer (from the branch office) which initiated this process, thanks to the router.

  • Please read on the domain name service (DNS) here.

The image below shows a network communication system between various Local Area Networks (LANs) via the Wide Area Network (WAN).

Wide Area Network - Len Academy

Please read on edge routers here.

In order to comprehend the above diagram, an understanding on the concept of computer network is required.

Please read on computer networks here.

Note the following on salient points on routers or layer 3 devices:

  1. It is the function of the router to receive, analyze and route incoming packets to the destination network.

  2. The router can drop packets when its configurations are not properly met by the incoming packets. This is probably why we can't access the internet from our service provider whenever we are yet to subscribe to a data package.

  3. The router receives, analyzes and routes incoming packets from its ingress interface to another network through its egress interface. Ingress interface is the port on which packets enters the router while egress interface refers to the port where packets exit the router.

  4. The router can also drop packets according to its Quality of Service (QoS) configuration.

Cisco made its first router in 1978.

Please read on the notable dates of internet evolution here

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Amazing facts in ICT

1,000 computers are used to retrieve the answers to your Google search (query) in 0.2 seconds

The first hand-held mobile phone call was made in New York City on April 3rd, 1973

The logo for gmail was designed the night before it was launched

Coca Cola owns all the domain names (website names) that can be read as ahh. They include: ahh.com, ahhh.com, ahhhh.com, ahhhhh.com, ahhhhhh.com and so on..., all the way up to 62 'h's!

YouTube is a video-sharing platform which commenced operations on February 14, 2005 (Valentine's day). Three former PayPal employees -> Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim created the YouTube service (as a dating app) until Google bought it in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion

Smoking near a Mac device - Len Academy

Smoking near an Apple (Mac) computer voids the warranty.

When you add /4 to the end of Facebook's URL, it will take you to Mark Zuckerberg.

You can try it on you own; or better still, try the link below:


Apple iPad retina - Len Academy

Apple iPad retina display is actually manufactured by Samsung

The big five tech companies of the world as at 2018 are :






Notable points in ICT

Python is one of the most popular programming languages, and will still remain relevant for a long time.

Python can be used for almost every kind of project including web application, machine learning, mobile and desktop applications, networking servers, APIs, scrapers, application’s backend and so on.

There is a great availability of third-party libraries for the python language. For this reason, it becomes one one of the easiest languages to learn as a beginner.

Believe it or not, Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) still remains one of the most popular backend language for web applications, even though it is currently facing a stiff competition from python language.

Content Management Systems (CMS) like wordpress and drupal are written in PHP for its backend. Interestingly, some of facebook’s backend were also written in PHP.

As at 2019, the backend of more than 40% of active websites are powered with PHP. In fact, Len Academy is also powered by PHP for its backend.

If you wish to manipulate databases via Structured Query Language (SQL) with a programming language that has dynamic capabilities, then PHP is your language of choice.

Please read on the best programming languages to lean here

Below are notable dates on internet evolution:

  • 1983: The Domain Name System (DNS) created the '.com .edu .gov .org and .net' systems for naming websites

  • 1985: The first registered domain name - 'symbolics.com' came into existence

  • 1992: The first audio and video were uploaded over the internet

  • 1992: The phrase 'surfing the Internet' became popular

  • 1993: The number of websites reached 600

  • 1993: White House and United Nations go online

  • 1994: Microsoft creates a Web browser for Windows 95

  • 1994: Yahoo! is created by Jerry Yang and David Filo

  • 1995 Amazon and eBay were launched online

  • 1996: 'The Dancing Baby' becomes the first viral internet video

  • 1997: Netflix is founded by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph

  • 1998: Google search engine came into existence

  • 2003: The worm 'SQL Slammer' spread over the internet within 10 minutes

  • 2004: Facebook goes online

Please read more notable dates on internet evolution here

Computer hardware is the collection of physical parts of a computer system.

Physical parts of a computer are those parts that you can see and touch. It may also be referred to as the 'equipment of the computer'.

When the computer case is opened (with a screwdriver), one would see the different hardware components inside of it. It's important to state that some other hardware components are present outside the computer case; and these are termed peripherals.

Below are hardware components seen inside the computer case:

  • Motherboard

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)

  • Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

  • Power supply Unit (PSU)

  • Northbridge

  • Southbridge

  • Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slots

  • Network Interface Card (NIC)

  • Random Access Memory (RAM)

  • Ventilation fans

  • Heat sink

  • Hard Disc Drive (external present)
  • Solid State Drive (SSD)

  • CMOS battery

  • Optical Disc Drives (external present)

  • USB port, PS2 port, Ethernet port and other ports

  • Expansion Ports / Slots

Please read more on computer hardware here

Hardware components seen outside the computer case are called peripherals. The peripherals are grouped into the following:

  1. Input devices: They provide information to the computer.

  2. Output devices: Brings out information from the computer.

  3. Storage devices: They store information or data.

Below are examples of some peripherals:

  • Keyboard (input)

  • Monitor (output)

  • Mouse (input)

  • Webcam (input)

  • Touch Pad (input)

  • Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash drive or memory card (storage)

  • Hard disc drive (storage)

  • Stylus (input)

  • Joystick(input)

  • Printer (output)

  • Speaker (output)

  • Headphones (output)