Topics in BiologyContents of the scrotum: Epididymis, vas deferens, spermatic cord and cremaster muscle Tropical savanna explained with its characteristics Ecological pyramid explained with its importance and limitations Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Male accessory sex organs: Seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands Scrotum and its contents: Testicles Brain: Introduction to the human brain Forebrain: Lobes of the cerebrum and their functions Cerebellum: Parts and functions of the cerebellum Midbrain: Division and functions of the midbrain Negative feedback mechanism in homeostasis Arterial disorders explained with their causes Types of desert and their characteristics Characteristics of tropical rainforest Swamp forest: What are swamp forests? Characteristics of swamp forests
Academic Questions in Biology
In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level _____.
Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.
F. None of the above
All reptiles are vertebrates.
_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.
_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.
Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?
A diagram showing the movement of energy through a food chain is called a _____.
Which of the following is NOT a part of the wrist bones (or carpal bones)?
Apart from the testicles, other male reproductive structures found in the scrotum include the epididymis, vas deferens, spermatic cord and cremaster muscle.
The epididymis is a comma-shaped, long, narrow and highly convoluted or coiled tubule. It has a length of 6 to 7 meters and can be seen on the superior, lateral and posterior sides of each testis. It is shown in the image below:
The epididymis is a muscular tube that connects each testicle to the vas deferens via the ductuli efferentes testis. It is divided into 3 parts. These are:
Head of the epididymis
Body of the epididymis
Tail of the epididymis
The head of the epididymis receives sperm cells from the ductuli efferentes testis. Its walls comprises of a thick epithelium and a few smooth muscle. Functionally, the head of the epididymis absorbs fluid from the spermatozoa (sperm cells), mildly concentrating them in the process.
The body of the epididymis is made up of an epithelium and smooth muscle with intermediate thickness. Its contractions propels the spermatozoa downwards.
The tail of the epidermis has the thinnest epithelium. In comparison to other parts of the epididymis, it has the greatest quantity of smooth muscle. Sperm cells are moved into the vas deferens from here.
The epididymis generally serves the following functions:
It stores sperm for about 80 days, bringing them to maturity.
It improves sperm motility by absorbing some of the fluids produced by the testicles during sperm formation.
The epididymis protects the sperm cells.
The epididymis leads into another tubule called the vas deferens. The smooth muscles surrounding the epididymis aid in propelling sperm into the vas deferens via their contractions.
The vas deferens is found both within and above the scrotum. It is a long muscular tube that begins at the tail of the epididymis and runs through the ejaculatory ducts.
The contraction of the smooth muscles of the vas deferens helps in propelling sperm during ejaculation. Also, as sperm move from the vas deferens into the urethra, secretions are added into it from the male accessory sex glands.
The vas deferens is also called the ductus deferens.
The function of vas deferens is to move or transport sperm from the epididymis into the ejaculatory ducts during the process of ejaculation. Simply put, you can consider the vas deferens as the transport system responsible for sperm movement from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts.
This is a cord-like structure formed by the vas deferens. It plays an important role in the supply of blood to the testes and vas deferens. It also aids the movement of sperm out of the epididymis into the ejaculatory ducts.
Below is an image showing the contents of the spermatic cord:
The spermatic cord contains a large amount of blood vessels and nerves. Functionally, these vessels supply blood to the testes, epididymis and cremaster muscles while its nerves assist in transferring information back and forth from the scrotum, testicles and the cremaster muscles respectively.
Permanently swollen veins (called varicose veins) may be formed in the vessels of the spermatic cord, resulting to a condition termed varicocele. In most cases, varicocele is asymptomatic, although fertility issues may result seldomly in patients.
The cremaster muscle surrounds the testis and is found only in males. They help in the movement of the testicles towards the body and away from it. The goal of these movements is to achieve an ideal temperature for sperm formation.
Unlike other internal organs, recall that the testes aren't located inside the body. It sits comfortably inside the scrotum, with the latter located outside the body. The temperature of the testis inside the scrotum is crucial for sperm formation. In fact, it is the cremasater muscle the moves the scrotum towards or away from the body, depending on the external temperature.
In comparison to the internal body temperature of 36.5oC, understand that both testes requires a slightly cooler temperature (around 34oC) for sperm formation.
In an environment with a cooler temperature, the cemaster muscle contracts, moving the testes towards the body. In this manner, the scrotal temperature is slightly raised against the environmental temperature. Conversely, when the environmental temperature is warmer, the cremaster muscle relaxes, thus pushing the testes away from the body.
The concept of the cremasteric reflex refers to an immediate action taken by the cremaster muscle whenever the inner thigh is stimulated. In this regard, the cremaster muscle automatically raises the testes towards the body. The inner thigh in the above instance refers to a region between the medial part of the hip and knee.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Pufferfish contain a toxin called tetrodotoxin. This makes them foul tasting and poisonous to predators. Tetrodotoxin is about 1,200 times more poisonous than cyanide, and there is enough toxin in one pufferfish to kill 30 adult humans. Unfortunately, there isn't any known antidote to this poison.
Interestingly, a delicacy in Japan (called fugu) is made from pufferfish. This meal is very expensive, and must be prepared by trained and licensed chefs. An improper preparation of fugu may lead to the customer's death. Sadly, such deaths are recorded annually
Wombats are the only animal with a cube-shaped poo. They can stack up these cube-shaped poo, marking their territory with it
Robert Wadlow (1918–1940) remains the tallest man ever recorded in the Guinness World Records. He was an American who stood at 8 feet, 11 inches.
An abnormally enlarged pituitary gland had resulted into Robert Wadlow's giant size.
Cockroach is the fastest land animal on six legs
Like humans, all apes laugh when tickled
An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain
The upper front teeth are missing in giraffes. Meanwhile, like an adult human, a fully grown giraffe has 32 teeth but most are positioned at the back of their mouth
Slugs have four noses
Most insects hatch from egg but aphids give birth to their young alive
Bats aren't birds, rather, they are mammals. Infact, they are the second largest order of mammals after rodents. We have over 1,400 species of bat. Globally, they make up about 20% of all classified mammal species
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Bios: means life.
Logos: means knowledge or to study.
Biology can therefore be defined as the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism). All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
Irritability or Sensitivity
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym -> MR. NIGER DAC.
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.
It is noteworthy to state that plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere