Topics in Basic ScienceResources from living things Resources from animals Importance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Microorganisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs
Academic Questions in Basic Science
Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.
With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.
A. International bodies
Disease causing organisms are termed _____.
E. Disease carriers
F. All the above options are correct
____ is formed from a reaction utilizing oxygen and glucose in the mitochondria of cells.
Which of the following statement is false concerning carbohydrates?
A. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only
B. Carbon has the highest ratio of the constituent elements of carbohydrates
C. All carbohydrates are sugars
D. Fructose is a carbohydrate
E. Natural milk contains lactose and it's a carbohydrate
F. Fatty foods contains high calories of energy when compared to the same quantity of carbohydrate foods
Which of the following is a class of food?
Brachiation is a specialized form of movement exhibited by _____.
A. Human beings
_____ is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs.
B. Duo Pedalism
C. Double Pedalism
D. Dual Pedalism
Living things are generally referred to anything that have life. Oftentimes, they are termed as living organisms. In science, living organisms are classified into kingdoms. These include the animal kingdom, plant kingdom, fungi kingdom, protist kingdom and so on. However, we shall consider the resources from living things (plants and animals) in this article.
Please read on the characteristics of living things here.
Recall that resources can be natural or artificial. Natural resources are valuable materials present in nature, and are exploited and utilized for the well being of humans. On the other hand, artificial resources are man-made; and are manufactured from natural resources. Therefore, they are not directly present in nature.
You read on the importance of forest here.
Meanwhile, understand that resources can also be renewable or nonrenewable. Renewable resources implies that they can replenish or replace themselves over time by natural processes. Examples are biomass (plant materials), solar, wind and water energies.
You can read on ecological pyramid here.
Non-renewable resources are limited in nature and may eventually run out overtime. Examples are oil, natural gas and coal.
As the name implies, plant resources are useful materials to humans derived from plants. Man may use these plant resources for subsistence (themselves) or for commercial purposes. As an instance, a family may grow vegetables, spices and ornamental plants for their own use, that is, for subsistence. On the contrary, a farmer may grow these crops for commercial purposes.
Please read on the differences between plants and crops here.
Simply put, plants are generally grown for their resources which may be for subsistence or commercial purposes. These plant resources include:
1. Oxygen: Oxygen is a fundamental part of life. It is considered as an important resource from plants since it is produced as a by-product of photosynthesis. For this reason, it is recommended that each person should plant a tree.
Please read on autotrophic nutrition and photosynthesis here.
Apart from giving oxygen to the earth, they also take away carbon(IV)oxide from it, and that's indeed a good thing for mankind.
2. Ornamental Crops: These crops are grown for beautification purposes. We see them in homes, schools, road sides and tourist sites. Examples are silver nerve plant, snake plant, peace lily and chinese money plant.
The image below shows a home beautified with ornamental crops.
You can read on orderliness here.
3. Food Crops: As the name implies, food crops serve as food for humans and animals. They are planted for this very reason (food). Food crops are generally put into different types. These are:
Root and Tubers: Examples are cassava, yam and cocoyam. They serve as excellent sources of carbohydrates.
Cereals: They include grains like maize, millet, wheat, rice, oats, barley and sorghum. They are sources of carbohydrates.
Please read on carbohydrates here.
Fruits: Apples, oranges and mangoes are fruits. They are good sources of vitamins, minerals and fibres.
Vegetables: Examples are pumpkin, waterleaf and lettuce. They are great sources of minerals and fibres.
Please read on mineral salts, their sources, functions and deficiencies here.
Spices: These crops add flavor to food. Ginger and garlic are examples of spices. They have medicinal values and can thus be useful in treating ailments.
Food crops provide important nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water. These are all essential for human survival.
4. Cash Crops: These are crops planted for commercial purposes. In addition to making money through their sale, they may also generate foreign exchange. They are typically planted in large quantities and will include the following:
Tree Crops: They are planted for their wood which are important for building and construction purposes. These can be either hardwood or softwood. Examples are iroko, obeche and mahogany.
Please read on hardwood and softwood here.
Tree crops constitute an important part of the forest ecosystem. This include the tropical rain forest which serves as home to over 50% of animal species.
Please read on tropical rainforest and its importance here.
Tree crops also include the the various tree producing fruits around us. Examples are mango and orange trees respectively.
Oil crops: They are planted for their oil. Examples are oil palm, groundnut and coconut.
Fibre Crops: They are grown for usage in the textile industry. Cotton crop is an example. Others are grown for the production of rope (which is also a part of the textile industry). Examples are sorrel plant, flax, guinea-hemp, sisal and jute.
Beverage Crops: They are grown for making beverages. Examples are coca, coffee and tea crops respectively. They can serve as stimulants.
Please read on stimulant drugs here.
Latex Crops: These are sticky substances derived from plants. They include gum, rubber and tannins. They may be used to produce gloves, balloons, rubber bands, catheters and mattresses.
Other examples of cash crop include sugarcane, tobacco, rice, beans, maize, wheat and so on.
5. Medicinal Crops: These are crops grown for their medicinal values. They include moringa, cinchona, neem tree, echinacea, garlic, yeast, gingko, ginseng, goldenseal and lemon grass. The bark, root and trees of certain plants have also got great medicinal value. They can therefore be used to treat a variety of diseases.
You can attempt Len Academy examination questions for JSS1 here.
6. Manure: Compost manure is comprised of decayed organic matter derived from decomposed plant material. It provides a variety of essential nutrients to plants, enhances soil structure and provides an excellent environment for the soil's beneficial microbes.
Please read on resources from animals and its explanations here.
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Amazing facts in Basic Science
Of all animals, mosquitoes hold the record of killing most humans annually. They are responsible for the deaths of 725,000 - 1,000,000 persons yearly
Antibiotics fights and kills bacteria. However, they do nothing to a virus
All insects have six legs. However, dragonfly has six legs but can't walk
The chin is defined as the protruding part of the face below the mouth, formed by the apex of the lower lip. It is shown below:
Interestingly, humans are the only animals with chin
Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water
Tomatoes and Avocados are fruits, not vegetables
Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.
Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell
Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack
The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6
Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear
NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science
Matter is composed of particles which can be:
Tightly packed together (as seen in solids).
Loosely packed together (as seen in liquids).
Completely separated (as seen in gases).
The movement of the particles of matter is a function of the overall kinetic energy present in them. You can think of kinetic energy as energy in motion.
An increase in the particles' vibrational, rotational or translational motion will imply an increase in temperature while a decrease in the particles motion (vibrational, rotational and translational) will mean a decrease in temperature. Based on this knowledge, we can therefore define temperature as the measure of the average kinetic energy possessed by the particles of matter.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a score derived from a set of standardized tests developed to measure a person's cognitive abilities in relation to their age group.
IQ may also be defined as the ratio of mental age (MA) to chronological age (CA) multiplied by 100.
Below are some formulas pertaining Intelligence Quotient:
IQ = MA x 100 ÷ CA
MA = Mental age
CA = Chronological age
IQ above 100 = Brilliance
IQ that equals 100 = Average
IQ below 100 = Below Average
Among all organisms in the universe, the human brain is the most developed. This highly developed brain present in humans is the biggest factor that makes them unique from every other organism on earth.
According to research, the more folds a brain has, the more intelligent the organism possessing it will become. To this end, humans have brains with the greatest number of folds (or bumps) called gyri and grooves (or indentations) called sulci.
Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.
Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:
The waste block drainages hence resulting to flooding, especially during the rainy seasons.
Please read on erosion here.
They generate bad smells which can be dangerous to health.
They constitute nuisance and eyesore.
They become homes to various disease causing organisms.
Please read on vectors of diseases here.
Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:
Animal product waste
Please read the explanations on the classification of wastes here