Social Studies

Types of fraud explained

len Alfred Ajibola - 05th January, 2023 @ 08:37 AM

Topics in Social Studies

How to prevent fraud Types of fraud explained Fraud as a contemporary social problem in Nigeria Explanations on the social problems in Nigeria and their solutions Contemporary social problems in Nigeria What is culture? Components of culture in social studies Child marriage and its consequences Consequences of Female Genital Mutilation What is healthy self-esteem? Characteristics of healthy self-esteem Causes of Environmental Problems Environmental Problems: Effects and Solutions to Environmental Problems Consequences of drug trafficking and solutions to drug trafficking Drug Trafficking: Reasons for drug trafficking Self-esteem: How to overcome low self-esteem What is low self-esteem? Characteristics of low self-esteem Low self-esteem: Causes of low self-esteem Consequences of Conflicts and Solutions to Conflict Global acronyms and their meanings Nigerian acronyms and their meanings Meaning and Objectives of Social Studies


Academic Questions in Social Studies

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

Marital separation may also be termed as divorce.

  • A. True

  • B. False

An ancient mode of transportation that requires the use of donkeys and camels is termed _____.

  • A. Human trans-animal

  • B. Human trans-ancient

  • C. Human-animal transportation

  • D. Human mechanical movement

  • E. Human porterage

  • F. Human trans-old

Rail transportation is a type of land transportation.

  • A. True

  • B. False

The following statements are true concerning transportation except _____.

  • A. Transportation is defined as the movement of goods, persons and animals from one point to another.

  • B. Means of transportation is not the same thing as Mode of transportation

  • C. Land transportation is a means of transportation

  • D. Rail transportation is a type of land transport

  • E. Pipeline typically transports liquid and gaseous products

  • F. Human porterage is an ancient mode of transportation

Which of the following is not a Nigerian acronym?

  • A. NBA

  • B. ISO

  • C. KAI

  • D. NAEC

  • E. NAPEP

  • F. MMIA

The acronym ICPC means _____.

  • A. Independent Corrupt Practice Command
  • B. Independent Corrupt Practice Complaints
  • C. Independent Corrupt Practice Court
  • D. Independent Corrupt Practice and other related offences Commission
  • E. Independent Corrupt Practices Cooperation
  • F. Independent Corrupt Pactice Conduct

Nigerian coat of arms - Len Academy

The black shield in the Nigerian Coat of Arm represents the _____.

  • A. Strength of Nigeria

  • B. Pride of Nigeria

  • C. Dark complexion of Nigerians

  • D. Dignity of Nigeria

  • E. Fertile soil of Nigeria

  • F. Beauty of Nigeria

Which of the following is not a Nigerian National Symbol?

  • A. The Nigerian Flag

  • B. The Nigerian National Anthem

  • C. The Nigerian National Pledge

  • D. The Nigerian Naira (NGN)

  • E. The Nigerian National Identity Card

  • F. None of the above


Types of Fraud:

The evolution of the internet has increased the ease of fraud in our world today. However, fraud may also be carried out through physical contacts with the potential victim(s).

The fraudsters employ various means to achieve their goals. These methods of scamming people can be explained through the various types of fraud.

Meanwhile, 'types of fraud' may also be referred to as 'forms of fraud'. They include the following:

 

1. Mail Fraud

Unsolicited emails with clickable links are sent to potential victims. Such links may land on a fake or cloned website requiring important details like passwords, username, Bank Verification Number (BVN), ATM pins, National Identity Management Commission (NIMC) number and so on. Email frauds are often regarded as a type of phishing.

Phishing is a form of fraud in which an attacker clones itself as a reputable entity, presenting a malicious link through the sending of targeted emails, text messages or voice calls, in an attempt to get Personal Identifiable Information (PII), login credentials, financial details and other sensitive data of an individual or organization.

To avoid mail fraud, we should be very careful when clicking links attached to emails; as some of these links may lead to malicious landing web pages requiring sensitive information.

Please read on the internet and world wide web here.

 

2. Romance Fraud, Romance Scam or Catfishing

In romance scams, the fraudster lies about his or her identity in an attempt to win the heart of their potential lover, who may eventually become the victim if the scam pulls through.

The victim may eventually fall in love (or enter a sort of relationship) with the fraudster who seizes this opportunity in demanding for money and other valuables through a series of lies or emotional blackmails.

Catfishing typically occurs on dating websites and apps, chat apps and other social media apps.

Please read on the amazing leadership qualities of Joseph here.

 

3. Fake Credit Notification

Fake credit notifications are usually received as text messages. As an instance, one may buy products from a physical store. The buyer may choose to deceive the seller by paying through a fake financial transfer done on his or her phone.

Interestingly, the seller immediately gets an account credit notification on his/her phone stipulating that the exact amount of goods purchased had been transferred into their bank account. However, such fake notifications is a scam since it does not emanate from the seller's banks. For this reason, it is highly recommended to confirm credit notification online through our bank's official app.

Please read on honesty and consequences of dishonesty here.

 

4. Ponzi Schemes 

A ponzi scheme is defined as a form of fraud perpetrated online through a structurally non-existent enterprise which pays old investors though funds collected from new investors in a timely and quick time frame.

Out of greed, the investors partake in ponzi schemes which typically promises 100% return on investment in one month or even less. They may eventually lose their entire capital through this scheme. Sadly, some had committed suicide through pertaking in ponzi schemes.

Please read on motivational quotes that has transformed lives here.

It is important to state that an unbelievably high return on any investment is a red flag towards such investment.

 

5. Fake Charity 

People may be defrauded through fake charity organizations. Such charity organization display fake humanitarian projects on their website and other social platforms in an attempt to get financial donations from potential givers.

It is noteworthy to state that a legitimate charity will not force one into making donations. Also, they usually do not request gift cards or cryptocurrencies as their preferred means of payment. These are scammers’ favoured methods of payment since such money is easy to access and difficult to trace.

Please read on black market here.

 

6. Debit and Credit Card Fraud

Fraud may be perpetrated through one's debit or credit card if certain details on the cards are compromised. For this reason, we should treat our debit and credit cards with utmost security.

Important details on the debit and credit cards include the card holder's name, the 16 digit code in front of the card, the expiration date in front of the card and three or fours digits Card Verification Value (called the CVV number) seen at the back of the card. These important features on the cards should be kept private.

Exposure of these aforementioned details can lead to online fraud through the making of payments with the victims' card. Also, their money can easily be transferred to another account using these details.

Please read more on credit and debit cards here.

 

7. Funds Transfer Fraud

This is said to occur when a fraudster receives the payment of a transaction instead of the intended recipient. To achieve this, the scammer may impersonate as an executive of an organization, or a representative of a business transaction.

In a fund transfer fraud, fake payment instructions are sent to the other party who is to make payments. If these payment instructions or invoices aren't verified, money may be sent into the fraudster's account. Such fraudsters usually transfer the money to their cryptocurrency wallets while also closing the dubious bank accounts within this period. This makes such money difficult to recover.

Please read on reputation here.

 

8. Loan Sharks

These are illegal lenders with extremely high interest rates, and strict terms and conditions towards collecting their payments, and will often target low income earners, especially those finding it difficult to access money from legal sources.

Unfortunately, some unregistered online loan apps can indirectly carry out fraudulent activities by giving out loans with an interest of 50% or more, spanning a period of two weeks to one month.

If the victim fails to pay the interest within the stipulated time frame, the loan shark tarnishes the loanee's image and may even issue death threats in some cases. Through such forms of threat, the loanee may eventually pay the borrowed money alongside huge interest to the loan sharks.

Please read on the elements of management here.

 

9. Fake Popup Messages

Popup messages are text that appears on the phone or computer's screen when browsing a website. Some of these popup messages may be fake, and websites showing such may be malicious.

Fake popup messages are often appealing. For instance, a message may appear telling the user that he or she has won a huge amount of money.

If a user clicks the fake popup message, they may be redirected to a compromised website. Such website could collect the user's financial information.

Please read on advertising here.

 

10. Lottery Fraud

They typically come in the form of email, SMS or phone call, telling a person that they have just won a lottery. As an instance, a fraudster will contact its potential victims, telling them they have won a huge sum of money through an organized lottery event.

Lottery fraud also refers to any act done in order to defraud the lottery game. In this regard, the aim of the fraudster is to win the jackpot prize of the lottery through fraudulent means. As a result, the organisation running the lottery may be defrauded.

An individual may also be defrauded if the jackpot prize of their lottery ticket is stolen. Also, an altered lottery ticket may be used to claim a jackpot prize if not properly checked.

You can read the concept of a business structure here.

 

11. Mortgage Fraud

A mortgage refers to a type of loan obtained to purchase physical assets like landed properties. In order to collect this loan, the borrower agrees to pay the lender over a period of time alongside the interest. The landed property obtained through the mortgage may then serve as collateral to secure the loan.

Mortgage fraud refers to a fraudulent act whereby the borrower obtains the mortgage by lying on their mortgage application. Therefore, the mortgage lenders may be defrauded through this act.

Due to the prevalence of this fraud, mortgage lenders are becoming more strict with regards to their lending criteria. Report has it that about 0.004% of mortgage applications are fraudulent.

You can read on franchise here.

 

12. Funds Transfer Schemes

In this instance, one may be tempted to provide his or her bank account details for money laundering scams. They are given commission for this act, which could eventually land them in prison.

You can read on the disadvantages of money here.

 

13. Fake Links

These are web links that lead to malicious websites. Such links are typically sent on various chat applications. These links lead to fake social media sites requesting the users' login credentials; that is, their username/email and password used on the genuine website.

If the users enter their login credentials on these fake sites, their accounts on the genuine sites may be eventually hacked.

Please read more on domain name system here.

 

14. COVID-19 Scams

Fraudulent activities had also been carried out  through COVID-19 scams. In this case, large sums of money allocated to COVID-19 palliatives are siphoned. In cases where these palliatives are purchased, they my not be disbursed to the people who really needs them.

Please read on fraud as a contemporary social problem in Nigeria here.

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Amazing facts in Social Studies

Ashrita Furman holds the world record for the holder of the most world records. He had set over 600 records and currently holds more than 200 world records

As at 2023, France remains the most visited country (with about 90 million visitors), followed by Spain (83.7 million). Next is the United States of America (79.3 million)

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Some car license plates in the Northwest Territories of Canada are shaped like a polar bear

The Library of Congress located in Washington D.C, America is the world's largest library. It contains over 162 million items in more than 450 languages.

The British Library (with over 150 million items) comes second, followed by the Library and Archives Canada with 54 million items (third), the New York Public Library with 53.1 million items (fourth), and the Russian State Library with 44.4 million items (fifth)

Located in Fez, Morocco, the University of Karueein (or University of Al Quaraouiyine) was founded way back in 859 A.D; and it's the world's oldest university (world's oldest higher learning institution) in the Guinness World Record.

In 1963, it was incorporated into Morocco's modern state university system, with approximately 8,000 students enrolling each academic year

We have got people who have fears on their fears. They are said to exhibit phobophobia which is the fear of phobias

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High heel shoes were first designed for men

According to Ecology Global Network, four babies are born every seconds, 250 every minutes, 15,000 every hour, 360,000 everyday and 131.4 million babies every year

People under age 30 account for over 52% of the world's population

People over age 60 make up 12.3% of the world's population


NOTABLE POINTS IN Social Studies

The following proactive processes can help reduce conflict in various organizations:

  1. Communication

  2. Set conflict guidelines

  3. Encourage collaboration and teamwork

  4. Proper recruitment process

  5. Promote social events

  6. Applying fair treatment

  7. Listening and understanding skills

  8. Private opinion and feedback from staff

  9. Gender equality

Please read more on conflict management in organizations here

Conflict can be caused in a variety of ways. For instance, silence may result into conflict. Interestingly, silence has also shown to be a great means of conflict prevention.

Below are some causes of conflicts:

  • Frustration

  • Misunderstanding

  • Poor communication

  • Interest

  • Leadership

  • Personality

Conflict is defined as a disagreement between two or more persons characterized by exchange of words and hostilities.

Conflicts can be reduced in organizations if the following proactive steps are adhered to:

  1. Communication

  2. Set conflict guidelines

  3. Encourage collaboration and teamwork

  4. Proper recruitment process

  5. Promote social events

  6. Application of fair treatment

  7. Listening and understanding skills

  8. Private opinion and feedbacks from staff

  9. Gender equality

Please read on conflict resolution in organizations and their explanations here.

The United Nations has six principal organs or arms. These are

  1. The General Assembly
  2. The Security Council
  3. The Economic and Social Council
  4. The Trusteeship
  5. The International Court of Justice
  6. The Secretariat

United Nations (UN) is the world body set up to promote peace and unity among the countries of the world. It officially came into existence on the 24th day of October, 1945 after it had been ratified by five permanent members of the security council and by the other 46 signatories. These permanent members are:

  1. United States of America
  2. United Kingdom
  3. Soviet Union
  4. Republic of China
  5. France

In total, the numerical strength of the United Nations at its inception was fifty one (51) states