Topics in Agricultural ScienceTypes of agricultural practices Crop rotation explained Benefits of crop rotation Differences between subsistence and commercial farming Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics What is commercial farming? Types of commercial farming Characteristics of commercial farming Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural machines and their uses Causes of soil erosion Ways to prevent soil erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Third Term
Academic Questions in Agricultural Science
The ideal pH for the optimum growth of most agricultural crop is between _____.
A. 1 – 3.5
B. 4 – 5.5
C. 6 – 7.5
D. 8 – 9.5
E. 10 – 11.5
F. 12 – 13.5
People who go about their lives by raising and herding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats are said to practice _____.
F. Anime Farming
The act of giving birth in pigs is called _____.
Which of the following is not a vegetable?
All plants are crops.
In agriculture, macronutrients are essential nutrients required by plants. Which of the following is not a macronutrient?
Which of the following is false concerning micronutrients?
A. They are non-essential nutrients
B. They are required by plants in minute quantities
C. Iron is a micronutrient
D. Chlorine is a micronutrient
E. Copper is a micronutrient
F. Boron is a micronutrient
_____ is a term that describes the biological, chemical and cultural control tactics employed to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable.
A. Integrated Pest Management
B. Integral Pest Management
C. International Pest Management
D. Inclusive Pest Management
E. Imbibed Pest Management
F. Inclusion Pest Management
Subsistence agriculture refers to a form of farming involving the growing of crops and rearing of animals for the purpose of consumption by the farmer and their family.
Commercial agriculture involves a farming practice whereby crops are grown and animals reared for selling purposes so as to make profit.
Please read on commercial farming and its types here.
The table below shows the differences between subsistence and commercial farming.
|Subsistence Farming||Commercial Farming|
|The ultimate goal of subsistence farming is to provide food for the farmers and their families.||The ultimate goal of commercial farming is to make profit through the sale of agricultural produce.|
|Farming is carried out on a small piece of land. In this regard, a plot of land (or even less) is enough for subsistence farming.||
Farming is carried out on a large piece of land. Acres of land is required for commercial farming.
Simple farm tools are utilized. Examples of simple farm tools include cutlass, shovel, rake, hoe, wheelbarrow and axe.
Agricultural machines are utilized. Examples include tractor, plough, irrigation sprinkler, reaper, subsoiler and mowers.
Mixed cropping (planting of different crops on the same piece of land) is usually practiced in subsistence farming.
|Mono cropping (planting of one type of crop on a piece of land) is often practiced in commercial farming, giving rise to plantation.|
|It requires little capital to start and run.||
It requires huge capital to start, run and maintain.
Fertilizers and other agrochemicals may be used, but only in small amounts.
Please read on the prevention and control of crop pest here.
|It requires the use of large amounts of agrochemicals such as fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides and pesticides.|
|The seeds planted and animals reared are not genetically engineered. Also, the animals reared may not be the best of their species.||
The best of seeds and animal species and selected and utilized in commercial farming. These may even be genetically engineered.
|Individuals (or families) are always involved in subsistence farming, and may work as a team in this regard.||
Commercial farming may be managed by large companies due of its organized structure.
|No need for hired professionals.||Hired professioners and skilled labourer and required.|
|Subsistence farmers may grow crops and rear animals simultaneously for the family's consumption.||Commercial farmers will usually specialize in growing a specific plant or rearing a specific animal for business purposes.|
Payments in the forms of wages and salaries are not made.
|Payments are made through wages, salaries, purchase of machineries, agrochemicals and other logistics.|
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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science
Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum
Peanuts are legumes and not nuts
Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments
Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them
Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs
A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.
People just prefer to call them herd
Notable points in Agricultural Science
The flower is the reproductive organ in plants' sexual reproduction. In order to achieve a successful sexual propagation or reproduction in plants, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.
The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:
The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.
The carpel (or pistil) is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.
An organism will be considered a pest if it does one of the followings:
Attack crops and eat its seeds, roots, stem, leaves and flowers. Examples are locust and grasshoppers.
Cause damage to stored food, fruits or other agricultural produce. Some may even urinate or deaficate on these products. Examples are rodents, cockroaches and mice.
Attack and kill farm animals like goats, sheep and cattle. Examples are foxes, wild cats and snakes.
Act as disease vectors. A vector is an organism that carries parasite and other disease causing organisms, without being affected; but when they introduce the parasites into their host, such host becomes infected with disease. Examples of vectors are rodents and mosquitoes.
Below are the classification of crops based on their uses:
Drug and Medicinal crops
Root and Tubers
All crops are plants but not all plants are crops. Below are some instances:
Weeds are considered as plants, not crops.
Parasitic plants are not necessarily crops. Examples of parasitic plants include mistletoe, corpse flower and striga.
Carnivorous or insectivorous plants are not necessarily crops. Examples are sundew, venus flytrap and pitcher plant. The image below shows a carnivorous plant (venus flytrap).
Meanwhile, always understand that all crops are plants, and they are grown for food, money or something beneficial.
Below are some of the problems of agriculture in Nigeria:
Lack of mechanized farming
Poor government policies
High cost of fertilizers
Lack of education
Lack of storage facilities
Bad road network
Poor research facilities
Please read a detailed explanation on the problems of agriculture in Nigeria here.