Agricultural Science

Differences between subsistence and commercial farming

len Alfred Ajibola - 14th January, 2023 @ 12:50 PM

Topics in Agricultural Science

Types of agricultural practices Crop rotation explained Benefits of crop rotation Differences between subsistence and commercial farming Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics What is commercial farming? Types of commercial farming Characteristics of commercial farming Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural machines and their uses Causes of soil erosion Ways to prevent soil erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Third Term


Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

_____ is a term that describes the biological, chemical and cultural control tactics employed to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable.

  • A. Integrated Pest Management

  • B. Integral Pest Management

  • C. International Pest Management

  • D. Inclusive Pest Management

  • E. Imbibed Pest Management

  • F. Inclusion Pest Management

Cordage is made from _____ crop.

  • A. Food

  • B. Fibre

  • C. Ornamental

  • D. Oil

  • E. Cash

  • F. Vegetables and Spice

_____ is defined as the solid and arable part of the earth where agricultural activities are be carried out.

  • A. Soil

  • B. Farmland

  • C. Agricultural land

  • D. Biosphere

  • E. Open land

  • F. Planting and grazing land

Gymnosperms and angiosperms are seed bearing plants under the division spermatophyta?

  • A. True

  • B. False

Which of the following is false concerning gymnosperms?

  • A. Cones are present

  • B. Sepals are present

  • C. Petals are absent

  • D. Only seeds are produced

  • E. Sporophyll form the cones

  • F. In seed formation, the ovules aren't present in the ovary

Which of the following statement is incorrect concerning seeds?

  • A. The ovary develops into the seed after fertilization

  • B. The embryo in the seed develops into a young plant

  • C. The seed's endosperm serve as a source of food reserve for the developing embryo

  • D. A seed has its own genotype

  • E. Seeds are products of sexual reproduction

  • F. Apomictic seeds aren't produced sexually and the hawkseed is an example

The _____ is the reproductive organ in plant's sexual reproduction.

  • A. Pollen grain

  • B. Ova

  • C. Sperm

  • D. Flower

  • E. Fruit

  • F. Seed

In flowering plants, fertilization occurs when the _____ comes into contact with the ova (as genetic materials are eventually exchanged).

  • A. Sperm

  • B. Endosperm

  • C. Exosperm

  • D. Stigma

  • E. Ovule

  • F. Pollen grain


Differences between Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture:

Subsistence agriculture refers to a form of farming involving the growing of crops and rearing of animals for the purpose of consumption by the farmer and their family.

Commercial agriculture involves a farming practice whereby crops are grown and animals reared for selling purposes so as to make profit.

Please read on commercial farming and its types here.

 

The table below shows the differences between subsistence and commercial farming.

 

Subsistence Farming Commercial Farming
The ultimate goal of subsistence farming is to provide food for the farmers and their families. The ultimate goal of commercial farming is to make profit through the sale of agricultural produce.
Farming is carried out on a small piece of land. In this regard, a plot of land (or even less) is enough for subsistence farming.

Farming is carried out on a large piece of land. Acres of land is required for commercial farming.

Please read on agricultural land and its uses here

Simple farm tools are utilized. Examples of simple farm tools include cutlass, shovel, rake, hoe, wheelbarrow and axe.

Please read on agricultural tools and their uses here

Agricultural machines are utilized. Examples include tractor, plough, irrigation sprinkler, reaper, subsoiler and mowers.

Please read on agricultural machines and their uses here

Mixed cropping (planting of different crops on the same piece of land) is usually practiced in subsistence farming.

You can read on agricultural terms and meanings here.

Mono cropping (planting of one type of crop on a piece of land) is often practiced in commercial farming, giving rise to plantation.
It requires little capital to start and run.

It requires huge capital to start, run and maintain.

Please read on how to start a home based fish farming here.

Fertilizers and other agrochemicals may be used, but only in small amounts.

Please read on the prevention and control of crop pest here.

It requires the use of large amounts of agrochemicals such as fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides and pesticides.
The seeds planted and animals reared  are not genetically engineered. Also, the animals reared may not be the best of their species.

The best of seeds and animal species and selected and utilized in commercial farming. These may even be genetically engineered.

Please read on asexual propagation in plants here.

Individuals (or families) are always involved in subsistence farming, and may work as a team in this regard.

Commercial farming may be managed by large companies due of its organized structure.

Please read the concept of business structure here.

No need for hired professionals. Hired professioners and skilled labourer and required.
Subsistence farmers may grow crops and rear animals simultaneously for the family's consumption. Commercial farmers will usually specialize in growing a specific plant or rearing a specific animal for business purposes.

Payments in the forms of wages and salaries are not made.

Please read on the characteristics of business here.

Payments are made through wages, salaries, purchase of machineries, agrochemicals and other logistics.

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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum

Peanuts are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments

Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them

Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd


NOTABLE POINTS IN Agricultural Science

Secateurs are agricultural tools.

Secateurs - Len Academy

  • Secateurs are also referred to as pruning shears or hand pruners.

  • It looks like a pair of scissors.

  • It’s used for trimming flowers and leaves.

  • It is also used for pruning the branches of shrubs.

An example of an agricultural tool is the hoe. It is shown below:

Hoe - Len Academy

  • We have a variety of hoes.

  • They are generally used for tilling the soil.

  • They are used for making trenches in farmlands.

  • A hoe is utilized in harvesting crops like yam and cocoyam

  • They are also used for cutting weeds on farmlands.

Please read on agricultural tools and their uses here

Fish Farming

Pisciculture, fish farming or fish rearing is a great business to begin as an entrepreneur.

Below are some reasons why one should embark on fish farming:

  • There is always a great demand for fish in the market.

  • You don't need a degree or qualification.

  • It is a profitable business if done right.

  • You are your own boss.

  • You can always get a fish specie that grows fast; and with a high marketability ratio.

  • Water is very cheap.

  • You can do it yourself if you abide by the fish farming rules.

Please read how to start a home based fish farming here.

Below are some agricultural terms and their meanings:

  • Agriculture: Agriculture is defined as a science that deals with plant and animal farming; including the cultivation of the soil for the purpose of growing crops and rearing animals to provide food for man, raw materials for industries and other useful resources; for example, oxygen.

  • Agricultural Extension: These are cooperative bodies that work with the federal and state agencies to carry out research and education for rural and urban producer and consumer groups. Agricultural extension is achieved through the cooperative's specialist personnel for each area of the state or country.

  • Agronomy: This is defined as the science of crop production and soil management.

  • Alfalfa: A leguminous crop used for forage or hay in livestock farming.

  • Algicides: These are pesticide used for controlling and killing algae. Algae are usually present in lakes, canals, damp walls, swimming pools, water tanks and other water related bodies.

    Please read on agricultural terms and meanings here.

Below are some common types of erosion:

  • Water Erosion: It is caused by rainfall and flooding on the topsoil. As a result of water erosion, some layers of the topsoil are lost.

  • Sheet Erosion: When an entire surface of land becomes eroded at a uniform (equal) level, such is referred to as sheet erosion. It is shown below:
    Sheet Erosion - Len Academy

  • Wind Erosion: It results from the actions of wind on a bare land. Wind erosion is often seen in deserts. Overgrazing and lack of vegetation cover will also enhance wind erosion on topsoil.

Please read more on types of soil erosion here.