Agricultural Science

Crop rotation explained

len Alfred Ajibola - 19th January, 2023 @ 02:18 PM

Topics in Agricultural Science

Types of agricultural practices Crop rotation explained Benefits of crop rotation Differences between subsistence and commercial farming Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics What is commercial farming? Types of commercial farming Characteristics of commercial farming Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural machines and their uses Causes of soil erosion Ways to prevent soil erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Third Term

Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

_____ is a term that describes the biological, chemical and cultural control tactics employed to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable.

  • A. Integrated Pest Management

  • B. Integral Pest Management

  • C. International Pest Management

  • D. Inclusive Pest Management

  • E. Imbibed Pest Management

  • F. Inclusion Pest Management

Cordage is made from _____ crop.

  • A. Food

  • B. Fibre

  • C. Ornamental

  • D. Oil

  • E. Cash

  • F. Vegetables and Spice

_____ is defined as the solid and arable part of the earth where agricultural activities are be carried out.

  • A. Soil

  • B. Farmland

  • C. Agricultural land

  • D. Biosphere

  • E. Open land

  • F. Planting and grazing land

Gymnosperms and angiosperms are seed bearing plants under the division spermatophyta?

  • A. True

  • B. False

Which of the following is false concerning gymnosperms?

  • A. Cones are present

  • B. Sepals are present

  • C. Petals are absent

  • D. Only seeds are produced

  • E. Sporophyll form the cones

  • F. In seed formation, the ovules aren't present in the ovary

Which of the following statement is incorrect concerning seeds?

  • A. The ovary develops into the seed after fertilization

  • B. The embryo in the seed develops into a young plant

  • C. The seed's endosperm serve as a source of food reserve for the developing embryo

  • D. A seed has its own genotype

  • E. Seeds are products of sexual reproduction

  • F. Apomictic seeds aren't produced sexually and the hawkseed is an example

The _____ is the reproductive organ in plant's sexual reproduction.

  • A. Pollen grain

  • B. Ova

  • C. Sperm

  • D. Flower

  • E. Fruit

  • F. Seed

In flowering plants, fertilization occurs when the _____ comes into contact with the ova (as genetic materials are eventually exchanged).

  • A. Sperm

  • B. Endosperm

  • C. Exosperm

  • D. Stigma

  • E. Ovule

  • F. Pollen grain

What is Crop Rotation?

Crop rotation is defined as an agricultural practice of growing different types of crops in a sequential manner, and at their respective seasons on the same piece of land.

In crop rotation, different crops are planted at different planting seasons, and in an ordered manner on the same agricultural land for a period of two years or more. For instance, a farmer may grow maize in one planting season and groundnut in the next.

Please read on the differences between plants and crops here.


This above instance of planting maize and groundnut in different planting seasons is a beneficial method of cultivation since maize will typically consume soil nitrogen when cultivated in the first planting season, while the groundnut grown in the next planting season replenishes the lost nitrogen (through the various nitrogen fixing bacteria present in its root nodules). This systematic and rotational pattern of planting crops increases the beneficial soil microorganisms, improves soil structure, nutrients and fertility, while also reducing soil erosion, and discouraging the growth of pests, weeds and other harmful organisms.

Please read on the types of agricultural practices here.


Crop rotation can be simple or complex depending on the number of different crops planted and their rotation intervals. In this regard, the sequential planting of two different crops in two planting seasons is considered a simple crop rotation. A complex rotation may involve the sequential planting of ten different crops in ten respective planting seasons.

You can read on asexual propagation in plants here.


The process of crop rotation is always ordered in such a way that the overall soil structure is improved upon. For instance, crop rotation may ensure the planting of crops whose root system occupy different soil depths. As a result, the crops whose root are superficially located maximize the soil nutrients at the upper layers, allowing the replenishing of nutrients in deep layers of the soil, as utilized by another crop in the next planting season. In this regard, a farmer can choose to plant groundnut in the first planting season since it has a superficial root system and will harness the nutrients in the upper layers of the soil. In the next planting season, the farmer may plant tomatoes which happens to be a deep rooted crop. Therefore, the tomato plant utilizes the soil nutrients at the deeper layers, while the upper soil layers are allowed to replenish its lost nutrients. Soil fertility is improved naturally through this process of crop rotation.

You can read on the roles of government in agricuture here.


Crop rotation leads to a significant reduction in the number of pests and diseases on farmlands. This is true because a pest that attacks crop in one planting season will become starved in the next planting season since different crops are expected to be planted sequentially. For instance, the African maize stalk borer, (Busseola fusca) is a pest that attack maize plant in sub-saharan Africa, damaging wherever it attacks on the maize crop. However, if the farmer plants groundnut in the next planting season, these pests are starved and their life cycles become disrupted since they do not attack groundnut. Eventually, their numbers are drastically reduced alongside the diseases they cause.

Please read on the prevention and control of crop pest here.


Crop rotation practices ensures a natural reduction of weeds on farmlands due to the changing composition of plants cultivated in this farming system. This process will discourage weeds from adapting to their constantly changing environment. For instance, weeds that thrive in the first planting season of maize may find it difficult to adapt when groundnut is planted in the second planting season. In this way, weeds are naturally reduced through crop rotation.

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It is noteworthy to state that beneficial bacteria and fungi are associated with different crops since the roots of these crops releases different beneficial organic substances into the soil. Therefore, the overall number and variety of beneficial soil organisms are increased through crop rotation.

Please read on the benefits of crop rotation here.

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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum

Peanuts are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments

Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them

Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd

NOTABLE POINTS IN Agricultural Science

Secateurs are agricultural tools.

Secateurs - Len Academy

  • Secateurs are also referred to as pruning shears or hand pruners.

  • It looks like a pair of scissors.

  • It’s used for trimming flowers and leaves.

  • It is also used for pruning the branches of shrubs.

An example of an agricultural tool is the hoe. It is shown below:

Hoe - Len Academy

  • We have a variety of hoes.

  • They are generally used for tilling the soil.

  • They are used for making trenches in farmlands.

  • A hoe is utilized in harvesting crops like yam and cocoyam

  • They are also used for cutting weeds on farmlands.

Please read on agricultural tools and their uses here

Fish Farming

Pisciculture, fish farming or fish rearing is a great business to begin as an entrepreneur.

Below are some reasons why one should embark on fish farming:

  • There is always a great demand for fish in the market.

  • You don't need a degree or qualification.

  • It is a profitable business if done right.

  • You are your own boss.

  • You can always get a fish specie that grows fast; and with a high marketability ratio.

  • Water is very cheap.

  • You can do it yourself if you abide by the fish farming rules.

Please read how to start a home based fish farming here.

Below are some agricultural terms and their meanings:

  • Agriculture: Agriculture is defined as a science that deals with plant and animal farming; including the cultivation of the soil for the purpose of growing crops and rearing animals to provide food for man, raw materials for industries and other useful resources; for example, oxygen.

  • Agricultural Extension: These are cooperative bodies that work with the federal and state agencies to carry out research and education for rural and urban producer and consumer groups. Agricultural extension is achieved through the cooperative's specialist personnel for each area of the state or country.

  • Agronomy: This is defined as the science of crop production and soil management.

  • Alfalfa: A leguminous crop used for forage or hay in livestock farming.

  • Algicides: These are pesticide used for controlling and killing algae. Algae are usually present in lakes, canals, damp walls, swimming pools, water tanks and other water related bodies.

    Please read on agricultural terms and meanings here.

Below are some common types of erosion:

  • Water Erosion: It is caused by rainfall and flooding on the topsoil. As a result of water erosion, some layers of the topsoil are lost.

  • Sheet Erosion: When an entire surface of land becomes eroded at a uniform (equal) level, such is referred to as sheet erosion. It is shown below:
    Sheet Erosion - Len Academy

  • Wind Erosion: It results from the actions of wind on a bare land. Wind erosion is often seen in deserts. Overgrazing and lack of vegetation cover will also enhance wind erosion on topsoil.

Please read more on types of soil erosion here.