Topics in Agricultural ScienceClay soil explained with its types and characteristics Loamy soil explained with its characteristics Sandy soil: Characteristics of sandy soil and ways to make it fertile Soil explained with its composition Types of agricultural practices Crop rotation explained Benefits of crop rotation Differences between subsistence and commercial farming Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics What is commercial farming? Types of commercial farming Characteristics of commercial farming Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural machines and their uses Causes of soil erosion Ways to prevent soil erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples
Academic Questions in Agricultural Science
The ideal pH for the optimum growth of most agricultural crop is between _____.
A. 1 – 3.5
B. 4 – 5.5
C. 6 – 7.5
D. 8 – 9.5
E. 10 – 11.5
F. 12 – 13.5
People who go about their lives by raising and herding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats are said to practice _____.
F. Anime Farming
The act of giving birth in pigs is called _____.
Which of the following is not a vegetable?
All plants are crops.
In agriculture, macronutrients are essential nutrients required by plants. Which of the following is not a macronutrient?
Which of the following is false concerning micronutrients?
A. They are non-essential nutrients
B. They are required by plants in minute quantities
C. Iron is a micronutrient
D. Chlorine is a micronutrient
E. Copper is a micronutrient
F. Boron is a micronutrient
_____ is a term that describes the biological, chemical and cultural control tactics employed to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable.
A. Integrated Pest Management
B. Integral Pest Management
C. International Pest Management
D. Inclusive Pest Management
E. Imbibed Pest Management
F. Inclusion Pest Management
Crop rotation is defined as an agricultural practice of growing different types of crops in a sequential manner, and at their respective seasons on the same piece of land.
In crop rotation, different crops are planted at different planting seasons, and in an ordered manner on the same agricultural land for a period of two years or more. For instance, a farmer may grow maize in one planting season and groundnut in the next.
This above instance of planting maize and groundnut in different planting seasons is a beneficial method of cultivation since maize will typically consume soil nitrogen when cultivated in the first planting season, while the groundnut grown in the next planting season replenishes the lost nitrogen (through the various nitrogen fixing bacteria present in its root nodules). This systematic and rotational pattern of planting crops increases the beneficial soil microorganisms, improves soil structure, nutrients and fertility, while also reducing soil erosion, and discouraging the growth of pests, weeds and other harmful organisms.
Crop rotation can be simple or complex depending on the number of different crops planted and their rotation intervals. In this regard, the sequential planting of two different crops in two planting seasons is considered a simple crop rotation. A complex rotation may involve the sequential planting of ten different crops in ten respective planting seasons.
The process of crop rotation is always ordered in such a way that the overall soil structure is improved upon. For instance, crop rotation may ensure the planting of crops whose root system occupy different soil depths. As a result, the crops whose root are superficially located maximize the soil nutrients at the upper layers, allowing the replenishing of nutrients in deep layers of the soil, as utilized by another crop in the next planting season. In this regard, a farmer can choose to plant groundnut in the first planting season since it has a superficial root system and will harness the nutrients in the upper layers of the soil. In the next planting season, the farmer may plant tomatoes which happens to be a deep rooted crop. Therefore, the tomato plant utilizes the soil nutrients at the deeper layers, while the upper soil layers are allowed to replenish its lost nutrients. Soil fertility is improved naturally through this process of crop rotation.
Crop rotation leads to a significant reduction in the number of pests and diseases on farmlands. This is true because a pest that attacks crop in one planting season will become starved in the next planting season since different crops are expected to be planted sequentially. For instance, the African maize stalk borer, (Busseola fusca) is a pest that attack maize plant in sub-saharan Africa, damaging wherever it attacks on the maize crop. However, if the farmer plants groundnut in the next planting season, these pests are starved and their life cycles become disrupted since they do not attack groundnut. Eventually, their numbers are drastically reduced alongside the diseases they cause.
Crop rotation practices ensures a natural reduction of weeds on farmlands due to the changing composition of plants cultivated in this farming system. This process will discourage weeds from adapting to their constantly changing environment. For instance, weeds that thrive in the first planting season of maize may find it difficult to adapt when groundnut is planted in the second planting season. In this way, weeds are naturally reduced through crop rotation.
It is noteworthy to state that beneficial bacteria and fungi are associated with different crops since the roots of these crops releases different beneficial organic substances into the soil. Therefore, the overall number and variety of beneficial soil organisms are increased through crop rotation.
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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science
Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum
Peanuts are legumes and not nuts
Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments
Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them
Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs
A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.
People just prefer to call them herd
Notable points in Agricultural Science
Below are characteristics of gymnosperms:
Their seeds have cones that protect them.
Sepals and petals aren't present in their cones.
Stigma and style are absent.
They do not produce fruits. Only seeds are formed.
Companion cells are absent.
Sporophyll form the cones.
Anther and filament are absent.
The ovules are not present in the ovary.
Gymnosperms do not possess flowers.
The flower is the reproductive organ in plants' sexual reproduction. In order to achieve a successful sexual propagation or reproduction in plants, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.
The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:
The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.
The carpel (or pistil) is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.
An organism will be considered a pest if it does one of the followings:
Attack crops and eat its seeds, roots, stem, leaves and flowers. Examples are locust and grasshoppers.
Cause damage to stored food, fruits or other agricultural produce. Some may even urinate or deaficate on these products. Examples are rodents, cockroaches and mice.
Attack and kill farm animals like goats, sheep and cattle. Examples are foxes, wild cats and snakes.
Act as disease vectors. A vector is an organism that carries parasite and other disease causing organisms, without being affected; but when they introduce the parasites into their host, such host becomes infected with disease. Examples of vectors are rodents and mosquitoes.
Below are the classification of crops based on their uses:
Drug and Medicinal crops
Root and Tubers
All crops are plants but not all plants are crops. Below are some instances:
Weeds are considered as plants, not crops.
Parasitic plants are not necessarily crops. Examples of parasitic plants include mistletoe, corpse flower and striga.
Carnivorous or insectivorous plants are not necessarily crops. Examples are sundew, venus flytrap and pitcher plant. The image below shows a carnivorous plant (venus flytrap).
Meanwhile, always understand that all crops are plants, and they are grown for food, money or something beneficial.