Topics in Chemistry
Gas laws in chemistry Charles's law explained Calculation questions on Charles's law Examples of Charles's law in real life Boyle's law explained Calculation questions on Boyle's law Examples of Boyle's law in real life Summary on the kinetic molecular theory of gases Postulates of kinetic theory of gases Avogadro's number explained with worked examples Mole and Avogadro's Number explained Le Chatelier's Principle: Changes in concentration and pressure in dynamic equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium: Dynamic Equilibrium in Chemistry Static and Dynamic Equilibrium explained with their differences Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Compounds in Chemistry: Characteristics of Compounds Types of Mixture: Homogenous and Heterogeneous Mixtures What are mixtures? Characteristics of mixturesAcademic Questions in Chemistry
_____ electron(s) is a term that describes the number of electron(s) in the outermost shell of an atom.
A. Outer
B. Excess
C. Valence
D. Positive
E. Negative
F. Last
_____ is the negative electrode in electrolysis.
A. Anode
B. Anion
C. Cathode
D. Cation
E. Ion
F. Electrolyte
The above diagram shows the _____ type of bond.
A. Covalent
B. Polar covalent
C. Coordinate covalent
D. Metallic
E. Van dear walls
F. Ionic
Metals are referred to as _____ in their impure state.
A. Diluted
B. Consecrated
C. Coloured
D. Ores
E. Stained
F. Strained
Metals generally have the quality to shine, glow, sparkle, glitter, reflect light and be polished. This characteristic of metals is termed _____.
A. State
B. Ductility
C. Luster
D. Malleability
E. Hardness
F. Inflorescence
The _____ spectrometry experiment conducted on isotopic elements gave a confirmation for the existence of isotopes.
A. Mole
B. Volume
C. Weight
D. Number of moles
E. Mass
F. Amount of substance
John Dalton's first atomic theory was modified based on a discovery made by _____.
A. Sir Isaac Newton
B. Albert Einstein
C. Avogadro
D. Rutherford
E. Boyle and Charles
F. Gay Lussac
Which of the following isn't an element of the periodic table.
A. J
B. Y
C. W
D. B
E. U
F. K
Boyle's law states that the volume of a given mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure, provided the temperature remains constant.
The English physicist, Robert Boyle (1627 - 1691) formulated this law in 1662.
Please read the introduction and concept of Boyle's law here
10dm^{3} gas at 1.5 atmosphere is heated at constant temperature. If the volume of the gas increases to 20dm^{3}, calculate its pressure at this new volume.
Step 1: List the known quantities from the question
Initial Volume (V_{1}) =10dm^{3}
Initial Pressure (P_{1}) = 1.5atm
Final Volume (V_{2}) = 20dm^{3}
Final Pressure (P_{2}) = Unknown
Step 2: Apply the formula for Boyles law to find the final pressure (P_{2}). Below is the formula:
Step 3: Make P_{2} the subject of the formula.
V_{1} x P_{1} = V_{2} x P_{2}
P_{2} = V_{1} x P_{1 }/ V_{2}
P_{2} = (V_{1} x P_{1}) ÷ V_{2}
Step 4: Substitute values into the formula to find the final volume (V_{2}).
P_{2} = (10 x 1.5) ÷ 20
P_{2} = 15 ÷ 20
P_{2} = 0.75atm
Step 6: Think about your answer.
Please read worked examples on Charles's law here.
A balloon is filled with helium gas to a volume 0.5L at 3atm. This balloon was placed in a pressure compartment of 1530mmHg. Determine the new volume occupied by the helium gas in the balloon.
Step 1: List the known quantities from the question
Initial Volume (V_{1}) = 0.5L
Initial Pressure (P_{1}) = 3atm
Final Volume (V_{2}) = Unknown
Final Pressure (P_{2}) = 1530mmHg
Step 2: The value for both pressures should be in the same unit. Understand that 1 atmosphere equals 760 millimeters of mecury. Convert the final pressure (P_{2}) from millimeters of mecury (mmHg) to atmosphere (atm) by dividing by 760.
P_{2} = 1530 ÷ 760 = 2atm
P_{2} = 2atm
Please read on fundamental quantities and units in physics here.
Step 3: Apply the formula for Boyle's law to find the final volume (V_{2}).
Step 4: Make V_{2} the subject of the formula.
V_{1} x P_{1} = V_{2} x P_{2}
V_{2} = V_{1} x P_{1} / P_{2}
V_{2} = (V_{1} x P_{1}) ÷ P_{2}
Step 5: Substitute values into the formula to find the final volume (V_{2}).
V_{2} = (0.5 x 3) ÷ 2
V_{2} = 1.5 ÷ 2
V_{2} = 0.75L
Step 6: Think about your answer.
Please read on emperical formula and its calculation here.
Convert 2L of oxygen gas at 380mmHg to its new volume at standard pressure. (Oxygen=16)
Step 1: List the known quantities from the question.
Initial Volume (V_{1}) = 2L
Initial Pressure (P_{1}) = 380mmHg
Final Volume (V_{2}) = Unknown
Final Pressure (P_{2}) = Standard Pressure
Step 2: Find the value for standard pressure.
The value for standard pressure is 1atm or 760mmHg. This value is a constant, and may not given in some questions.
Step 3: Apply the formula for Boyles law to find the final volume (V_{2}).
Step 4: Make V_{2} the subject of the formula.
V_{1} x P_{1} = V_{2} x P_{2}
V_{2} = V_{1} x P_{1} / P_{2}
V_{2} = (V_{1} x P_{1}) ÷ P_{2}
Step 5: Substitute values into the formula to find the final volume (V_{2}).
V_{2} = (2 x 380) ÷ 760
V_{2} = 760 ÷ 760
V_{2} = 1
Step 6: Think about your answer.
You can read on molecular and molar mass with worked examples here.
If the pressure on a gas is decreased to 1%, Will the volume of the gas increase or decrease?
What percentage will the increase or decrease be?
Step 1: Recall the definition of Boyle's law.
Always understand that Boyle's law involves the volume of a gas and its pressure at a constant temperature.
This volume and pressure are always inversely proportional. Therefore, when one increases, the other decreases. For instance, when volume increases, pressure decreases; and when pressure increases, volume decreases.
Step 2: Discover your answer from the question.
From the question, since the pressure of the gas was decreased, its volume will increase according to Boyle's law.
If the pressure decreased by 1%, the increase in volume will be in the same proportion. Therefore, the volume increased by 1% also.
Step 3: Think about your answer.
Please read the explanation on real life examples of Boyle's law here.
Giving your answer in millimeters of mecury, to what pressure must a 5000mL gas be compressed in order to get into a 1000mL container whose gas was compressed at standard pressure?
Step 1: List the known quantities from the question
Initial Volume (V_{1}) = 5000mL
Initial Pressure (P_{1}) = Unknown
Final Volume (V_{2}) = 1000mL
Final Pressure (P_{2}) = Standard Pressure
Step 2: Find the value for standard pressure.
The value for standard pressure is 1atm or 760mmHg. This value is a constant (and may not given in some questions).
Final Pressure (P_{2}) = 760mmHg
Step 3: Apply the formula for Boyles law to find the final pressure (P_{2}). Below is the formula:
Step 3: Make P_{1} the subject of the formula.
V_{1} x P_{1} = V_{2} x P_{2}
P_{1} = V_{2} x P_{2 }/ V_{1}
P_{1} = (V_{2} x P_{2}) ÷ V_{1}
Step 4: Substitute values into the formula to find the initial pressure (P_{1}).
P_{1} = (1000 x 760) ÷ 5000
P_{1} = 760,000 ÷ 5000
P_{1} = 152mmHg
Step 6: Think about your answer.
Please read an introduction to gas laws in chemistry here.
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Amazing facts in Chemistry
Plastic and Glass can decompose, but not in our lifetimes. It takes an average time of 450 years for plastics to decompose. As for the decomposition of glasses, it takes about 4,000 years
The only letters that failed to appear on the periodic table are letters:
Gold and copper are the only two non-silvery colored metals.
Copper is the only metal that is naturally antibacterial. For this reason, some children utilize 'copper water bottles' in schools
Water freezes faster when it’s warm than when it’s cold
Most element in their pure state exists physically in different forms. For instance, pure carbon can exist as both diamond and graphite. This phenomenon is called allotropy
If you pour a handful of salt into a full glass of water, the water level will go down rather than overflowing the glass.
Similarly, if you mix half liter of water and half litre of alcohol, the total volume of the liquid will be les than one litre
NOTABLE POINTS IN Chemistry
The periodic table, also called periodic table of elements or Mendeleev's table, is a table that shows an organized arrangement of the 118 chemical elements according to their atomic number.
Out of the 118 elements; elements 1 - 94 are present in nature while elements 95 - 118 are synthesized artificially.
The manner at which elements are arranged on this table reveals some similarities in their electronic configurations and chemical properties.
A compound composed of iron (Fe) and oxygen (O) was analyzed and found to contain 69.94% iron and 30.06% oxygen. Find the empirical formula of the compound. (Molar mass of Fe=55.85, O=16)
Step 1: Identify the given parameter from the question.
Fe = 69.94%, O = 30.06%.
Empirical formula = Fe_{?}O_{?}
Step 2: Convert the percentages to gram. (just attribute grams to the %).
Step 3: To get the mole ratio of each element, convert the gram to moles using the formula (mole = mass/molarmass). Please merorize this formula because we always work with moles in emperical formula.
Mole of Fe: 69.94/55.85 = 1.252mol
Mole of O: 30.06/16 = 1.879mol
Step 4: Divide both sides by the smallest mole ratio.
Iron has the smallest mole ratio in our case, therefore: 1.252/1.252 = 1, 1.879/1.252 = 1.5
We now have the formula = Fe_{1}O_{1.5}
Step 5: Multiply each of the moles by the smallest whole number that will convert each into a whole number. (In our case, the number '2' is the smallest whole number that will make '1.5' and '1' whole numbers when multiplied by it.
For iron (Fe), we will have 1 x 2 = 2
For oxygen (O), we will have 1.5 x 2 = 3
Step 6: Write the empirical formula.
The empirical formula= Fe_{2}O_{3}
Iron(III)tetraoxosulphate(VI)
In chemistry, hydrocarbons can be classified as either aliphatic or aromatic. Recently, both classifications of hydrocarbon were based on their structure rather than their origin.
Aliphatic hydrocarbons are put into three main groups according to the types of bonds they possess. These are:
Alkanes
Alkenes
Alkynes
They are shown in the image below:
It's important to note the followings:
Alkanes have single bonds (only) in their structures.
Alkenes always have a carbon-carbon double bond present in their structure.
Alkynes always have a carbon-carbon triple bond present in their structure.
Aromatic hydrocarbons are classified into:
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon and it's compounds.
Carbon is the focus of organic chemistry because it has a wide chemical diversity in the sense that it can combine with other carbon atoms to form a long chain of carbon molecule. This ability and process whereby carbon can form a long chain of itself is called catenation.
A major challenge encountered when calculating molecular mass is that it becomes difficult or impossible to calculate especially when the relative molecular mass of large molecules, polymers and macromolecules are involved.
Examples of large molecules (with indefinite molecular masses) include carbohydrates, cellulose and complex sugars.
The large molecules (above) have no specific chemical formula throughout their volume.
Understand that Relative Molecular Mass prove to be useful only when we calculate substances with small and definite molecular sizes. This was proven through the modifications of Dalton's atomic theory.
Please read on Dalton's atomic theory and its modifications here.