Social Studies

Values and Norms explained

len Alfred Ajibola - 27th February, 2023 @ 04:17 PM

Topics in Social Studies

Values and Norms explained What are norms? Types of norms Differences between values and norms How to prevent fraud Types of fraud explained Fraud as a contemporary social problem in Nigeria Explanations on the social problems in Nigeria and their solutions Contemporary social problems in Nigeria What is culture? Components of culture in social studies Child marriage and its consequences Consequences of Female Genital Mutilation What is healthy self-esteem? Characteristics of healthy self-esteem Causes of Environmental Problems Effects and Solutions to Environmental Problems Consequences of drug trafficking and solutions to drug trafficking Drug Trafficking: Reasons for drug trafficking Self-esteem: How to overcome low self-esteem What is low self-esteem? Characteristics of low self-esteem Low self-esteem: Causes of low self-esteem Consequences of Conflicts and Solutions to Conflict

Academic Questions in Social Studies

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

Twitter is a part of our social environment.

  • A. True

  • B. False

The following are objectives of social studies except _____.

  • A. It teaches morals and values

  • B. It enables us to better understand our environment

  • C. It creates national consciousness

  • D. It assists in producing upright citizens

  • E. It promotes the military form of government

  • F. It fosters judicious use of resources

Which of the following is not a natural cause of environmental problem?

  • A. Tsunami

  • B. Deforestation

  • C. Earthquake

  • D. Drought

  • E. Hurricane

  • F. Tornado

Conflict can simply be defined as a clash of interest.

  • A. True

  • B. False

_____ refers to a personal reflection of one's overall self worth.

  • A. Integrity

  • B. Reputation

  • C. Personality

  • D. Self-esteem

  • E. Psychoanalysis

  • F. Attributes

A type of marriage whereby a christian man marries a muslim woman is termed _____ marriage.

  • A. Faith

  • B. Religious

  • C. Denominational

  • D. Interfaith

  • E. Intrafaith

  • F. Church-Mosque

_____marriage is said to exist between couples who have lived together for a very long time with no prior form of marriage.

  • A. Open

  • B. Convinience

  • C. Trial

  • D. Left Handed

  • E. Companionate

  • F. Common Law

Tribal marks - Len Academy

The above image is considered a part of harmful traditional practices. The following are similar examples of such practices except _____.

  • A. Sharo

  • B. Wuuse

  • C. Female Genital Mutilation

  • D. Widowhood

  • E. Breast Ironing

  • F. Child Marriage

Values and Norms

Values are quite different from norms. Values are often attributed to the principles that guide a person. In this regard, an individual will always have his or her own values, as these will shape the identity and personality of that person. However, when individuals work in an organization, they are obliged to imbibe the values of their organization.

Consider yourself for a moment, there are certain things, people or principles you hold in high esteem. This could be a product of technology, loved ones or certain virtues. As an instance, a mother may be willing to sacrifice her pleasures for the sake of her child. This is a function of the value she had placed on the child. Therefore, the values of an individual will determine his or her decision making process.

Please read on self-esteem here.


It is worthy of note to state that the decisions made from our values may not always be right. This is so because we can become emotional and sentimental in certain instances. For this reason, actions like love, hate, judgement, jealousy and anger results from our values. Through these, the values of a person can become fundamental in their manner of reasoning. They can also act as means of comprehending the person's behaviour.

Please read the story of the prodigal son and moral lessons learnt.


Value is defined as the esteemed quality or importance which a person or an organization attaches to their ideals, beliefs or principles.

  • Value also refers to the standard principles, ideals or belief that is supported, accepted and maintained by individuals and the society they live in.


Values can generally be put into three types. These are:

  1. Positive values

  2. Negative values

  3. Intrinsic values

Please read more on the definitions and types of values here.

Norms (also referred to as social norms) goes beyond an individual. They are standards of acceptable behavior which becomes a pattern of action among a group of people. These behavioral patterns are sociocultural, and are often learnt through observations, communication and experiences. In other words, most norms are uncodified, that is; they are unwritten. However, a few norms are written and these are considered as laws.

Please read more on constitution here.

Unlike values, norms are not private opinions, ideals or principles. Rather, they are desirable behavior shared by a group of people. Through this process, they help to guide the people on what is right and wrong.


According to Émile Durkheim, norms are regarded as social facts existing in the society, and are independent of individuals, but will rather help in shaping the behavior and action of the people in general.

You can read on the responsibilities, duties and obligations of citizens here.


Norms are observable in our salutation, courtesy, sports, marriage, education, clothing, food and drink. For instance, in some Nigerian cultures, it is an acceptable behavior (norm) to pour few drops alcohol on the ground before it is drunk. According to the cultures involved, this is a traditional practice termed libation, and it is believed that the gods of the land are being appeased with the drink. In other cultures, it is an offering, tribute or respect to the ancestors or spirits as they are served first before the individuals enjoy their drinks.

Please read on the differences between values and norms here.

With regards to salutation, some groups may exchange handshakes, others may hug while another set of people may prostrate or go on their knees. This differences in salutations is a function of their respective norms and culture.

Please read more on culture here.


Generally, Norms can be put into four types. These are:

  1. Folklores

  2. Mores

  3. Taboos

  4. Laws

Please read a detailed explanation on norms and types of norms here.

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Amazing facts in Social Studies

Statue of Unity - Len Academy

The Statue of Unity in Gujarat, India, is the tallest statue in the world. It stands at 182 meters (579 feet)

2.7 Billion Dollars was realized from the movie - Avengers: Endgame. This makes it the top-grossing film of all time

Sulawasi pigs - Len Academy

The world’s oldest known work of art was discovered by scientists in 2019 on an Indonesian island named Sulawesi. This work of art was created 44,000 years ago, and it shows paintings of three Sulawesi pigs

68% of households in New Zealand have a pet, and this is more than any other nation or country in the world

According to the Population Reference Bureau, the number of people alive today represents about 7% of the total number of humans who have ever lived.

Yahoo is an acronym for: 'Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle'

Ashrita Furman holds the world record for the holder of the most world records. He had set over 600 records and currently holds more than 200 world records

As at 2023, France remains the most visited country (with about 90 million visitors), followed by Spain (83.7 million). Next is the United States of America (79.3 million)

Car license plate in canada - Len Academy

Some car license plates in the Northwest Territories of Canada are shaped like a polar bear

The Library of Congress located in Washington D.C, America is the world's largest library. It contains over 162 million items in more than 450 languages.

The British Library (with over 150 million items) comes second, followed by the Library and Archives Canada with 54 million items (third), the New York Public Library with 53.1 million items (fourth), and the Russian State Library with 44.4 million items (fifth)

Notable points in Social Studies

Social Studies is defined as an integrated study on the interaction of human beings with their physical and social environments.

We can think of our environment as everything that surrounds us at any point in time. For instance, the soil, air, your clothes, phone and everything surrounding you right now are all part of your environment. (That is, they make up your environment).

Physical environment describes every visible thing around us. It could be water, air, soil, clothes, phones or all other things found around us.

Social environment on the other hand describes the various social roles or positions that influence an individual or a group. It is represented in our culture, norms, values, the people and various institutions with whom we interact with. Meanwhile, understand that social media applications like facebook, twitter, instagram, youtube and the likes present a social environment where people can interact with one another regardless their geographical location around the world.

Please read on the meaning and objectives of social studies here

The causes of environmental problems can be either natural or man-made.

Natural causes of environmental problems will include the followings:

  • Erosion

  • Earthquakes

  • Drought

  • Tsunami

  • Tornadoes

  • Hurricanes

Some of the man-made causes of environmental problems are:

  • Pollution

  • Ozone layer depletion

  • Deforestation

  • Uncontrolled urbanization

  • Increased turnout of waste

  • Flooding

Environmental problems can be defined as problems associated with the lithosphere (land), atmosphere (air) and hydrosphere (water) as a result of man's action on earth.

Below are some of the constituents that make up our environment. These constituents may in turn act as factors that bring about environmental problems. They include:

  • Air or Atmosphere

  • Soil

  • Water

  • Bacteria

  • The people around us

  • The animals around us

  • The things around us. For instance, books, food, shoes, phones and so on.

Please read more on environmental problems here.

The following proactive processes can help reduce conflict in various organizations:

  1. Communication

  2. Set conflict guidelines

  3. Encourage collaboration and teamwork

  4. Proper recruitment process

  5. Promote social events

  6. Applying fair treatment

  7. Listening and understanding skills

  8. Private opinion and feedback from staff

  9. Gender equality

Please read more on conflict management in organizations here