Basic Technology

Definitions of technology and their explanations

len Alfred Ajibola - 29th May, 2023 @ 02:47 PM

Topics in Basic Technology

Definitions of technology and their explanations Examples of technology Forms of technology explained with their differences Types of chain drive Types of belt drive Types of Ceramics Advantages and Disadvantages of Chain Drives Len Academy Questions for Basic Technology JSS3, 2nd Term Len Academy Basic Technology Questions, JSS3 Belt and Pulley Drives: Types of belt in belt drives Refrigerator as an electromechanical device, its parts and operations What is chain drive? Classification of chain drive What are Belt Drives? Advantages and Disadvantages of Belt Drives Type of Lines in Technical Drawings Len Academy questions for Basic Technology, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy questions for Basic Technology JSS2, 2nd Term, Part 2 What is Maintenance? Types of Maintenance Hardwood and Softwood - Characteristics and Examples What are Ceramics? Characteristics of Ceramics

Academic Questions in Basic Technology

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

The _____ functions to remove excess heat from the refrigerator.

  • A. Evaporator

  • B. Compressor

  • C. Condenser

  • D. Expansion Valve

  • E. Thermostat

  • F. Defrost System

A fluid or gas that runs through the compartments of a refrigerator is termed _____.

  • A. Water vapor

  • B. Liquid vapor

  • C. Frost

  • D. Refrigerant

  • E. Compressed water

  • F. Evaporated water

Current flows through a path called _____.

  • A. Electricity

  • B. Electric Route

  • C. Electrolysis

  • D. Transformer

  • E. High Tension

  • F. Electric Circuit

Googles are safety wears.

  • A. True

  • B. False

Which of the following is false concerning advanced ceramics?

  • A. They can be made from metallic oxides

  • B. They are very hard and durable

  • C. They are corrosion resistant

  • D. They are fired in the presence of oxygen

  • E. They are fired at a very high temperature of about 1700oC

  • F. They can be made from non-oxides such as carbides and borides

A thin continuous line is used for representing the followings except _____.

  • A. Intersections

  • B. Hatching lines

  • C. Long breaks

  • D. Diagonal line used to state plane surfaces

  • E. Leader lines

  • F. Back section lines

Inverted toothed chain drive - Len Academy

With regards to chain drives, the diagram above is a/an _____ chain.

  • A. Roller

  • B. Silent

  • C. Leaf

  • D. Flat-top

  • E. Detachable

  • F. Acceleration

A type of chain drive commonly used in bicycles is the _____ chain.

  • A. Roller

  • B. Silent

  • C. Leaf

  • D. Flat-top

  • E. Detachable

  • F. Acceleration

Meaning of Technology:

Let me begin by stating that you are able to read this article via a product of technology. The product of technology in this instance will include your phone, tablet or personal computer. In this regard, we can clearly say that technology encompasses education, learning and every other area of our lives. In fact, our world is advanced today through this very process of technology.


The term 'technology' is derived from two Greek words. These are tekhnē, which means a craft or an art; and logia, referring to an area of study.

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From the Greek derivatives of technology, we can decipher that technology is simply the study of craft. Such study will require practical work through the application of scientific knowledge in a systematic manner. As a result, the end goal of technology is the development of devices, machines, equipment, applications and services (all of which are called products of technology); and will generally improve the way we go about our daily task.


Examples of products of technology include phones, smart homes, internet, web applications, android and IOS applications, video assistant referee (VAR), smart cars, roads, aircrafts, video game consoles, CCTV, smart television, electricity, cookers, refrigerator, agricultural machines, drugs, vaccines, smart cards and many more.

Please read various examples of technology here.


Definitions of Technology

The concept of technology can be somewhat understood differently by various persons. However the subtle differences, these definitions all point towards the same direction.

Below are some definitions of the term technology and their respective explanations:


  • Technology is defined as words or discourse about the way things are gained - Dr. Kenneth H. Funk

Dr. Funk is an associate professor of engineering in Oregon State University. According to his definition, any form of discussion or conversation geared towards getting things done in a more efficient manner can be regarded as technology. For instance, when I decided to create Len Academy (an academic website), I engaged in actions that built my skills towards attaining my goal. These 'actions' of mine was achieved partly through discourse and conversations with professionals; and this what Dr. Funk considers as technology through his definition.

You can check out motivational quotes for students here.


  • Technology is defined as the science or study of useful art - Eric Schatzberg

Schatzberg is an associate professor at the university of Wisconsin. His definition implies that technology is a field of study that teaches practical arts. For instance, an apprentice working in a mechanic workshop can be considered as undergoing technological procedures. The same applies to medical and engineering undergraduates who are diligently focused on their course of interest.

Please read interesting facts for students here.


  • Technology is defined as a higher technical education - William Barton Rogers

William Barton Rogers is the founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). According to his definition, technology is considered a school or learning ground that equip students with practical knowledge and skills on a specific field.

Note: Based on Rogers' definition of technology, we have various technological academies and schools which serves as a grooming ground for technology. Examples are Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO) respectively. Both institutions are present in Nigeria.

You can read on the Len Academy smart school software here.

  • Technology refers to all tools, machines, utensils, weapons, instruments, housing, clothing, communicating and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them - Bain

According to Bain, technology consists of any manufactured thing aimed at meeting our needs and wants, thus making life processes easier and efficient. These will include home appliances, medical tools, agricultural machines, computing devices and so on. His definition also include the skills required by humans to produce these things or technologies.

Please read on the forms of technology here.


  • Technology is the application of science, engineering and industrial organization to create a human-build world - Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

With regards to the above definition of technology, we see numerous instances of how the human world had evolved significantly. For example, landline phones which were once considered as a massive communication devices in the 1900s have become almost completely replaced with smart mobile phones. These high end mobile devices can be efficiently used for voice and video communication, social media, photography, education and gaming purposes.

Please read on ways to consume less data on android devices.


  • Technology is quite literally the lever for being able to take natural resources and able to make something better out of them - Marc Andressen

According to Mark Andressen, the action of producing new things from natural resources is technology. For instance, crude oil is a natural resources from which new substances like petrol, kerosine, diesel, natural gas and bitumen are produced via fractional distillation.

Please read more on fractional distillation of crude oil here.

In another instance, water and solar energy are natural resources through which electricity can be generated. Technology therefore acts as a lever between the natural resources and the products generated from them.


  • Technology is defined as practical implementations of intelligence - Frederick Ferré

According to Ferré, practical actions must be taken to achieve technology. It comes through a process of intellectual work. In fact, it could take some period of time before a specific technological goal can be achieved. As an instance, Thomas Alva Edison lighted our world by producing the technology of lightbulb in 1880. He was able to achieve this through practical implementation of intelligence corroborated by virtues of patience and perseverance.


  • Technology may be defined as the application of organized knowledge to practical tasks by ordered systems of people and machines - Ian Barbour

The definition of technology by Barbour is quite broad. The concept of 'organized knowledge' in his definition implies that practical experiences, scientific theories and invention are critical aspects of technology.

The concept of 'practical tasks' refers to the process of producing goods and services, both of which are seen in various industries; for instance, agricultural and manufacturing industries respectively.

You can read agricultural terms and meanings here.

Barbour's reference to ‘ordered systems of people and machines’ directs attention to social institutions, as well as to the hardware of technology. In summary, his definition shows that technology can be achieved in a variety of ways.


  • Technology can, indeed, be defined as a pursuit of power over nature - Robert Friedel

Friedel's definition of technology points out that knowledge is the key instrument which humans utilizes to accomplish the purposes of life. Indeed, we see this definition in almost every field of life. For instance, a woman who had lost her womb from an accident can still have her biological child through surrogacy. Also, we have seen how technology had destroyed various naturally occurring diseases through immunization.

Pease read the concept of immunization here.


  • Technology is defined as the organization of knowledge for the achievement of practical purposesEmmanuel Mesthene

Mesthene's definition of technology centers on conscious effort towards gaining knowledge in a specific field. Such gained knowledged must become practicable in such a way that man's challenges on life are appropriately eased. As an instance, professors and doctors work on their area of specialty to proffer solutions to man's problems.


  • Technology is defined as the process of creativity involving human ingenuityThomas P. Hughes

Going by Hughes' definition, you will observe that there exists a huge gulf in technology between now and 100 years ago. Presently, we see cutting edge technologies like smart homes, self-driving cars, sophisticated robots, smart phones, amazing designs of road construction and many more. Simply put, this definition shows that a point will be reached in our world where everything will become technology through the internet of things.

Please read on the internet of things here.


  • Technology is the ability to transform societal resources (labor and capital) into valuable output (goods and services) - John Fernald

This definition of technology is reflected in the factors of production. The factors of production are land, labor, capital and entrepreneur; and these are utilized into the production of goods and services. As an instance, various manufacturing companies utilize the factors of production to achieve their aim. Examples are textile, beverage and shoe producing industries.

Please read more on the concept of production here.


  • Technology is defined as a means to fulfill a human purpose - Brian Arthur

According Arthur's definition, the means of achieving a technology can be via a simple method, through a process or device. However, such means of achieving a technology may also be complicated such that it could take many years.

In summary, the means of achieving various technologies may be simple or complicated as far as it fulfils a human purpose in an efficient manner. Concerning his definition, you can consider how long it has taken the world to yet discover the cure for HIV and AIDS.

Brian .W. Arthur further came out with two more definitions of technology. These are:

Technology as an assemblage of practices and components.

Technology is the total collection of devices and engineering practices available to a culture.

Please read on the prevention of fraud here.


  • Technology can be defined as the practical application of knowledge in a specific area.

The above definition is often considered as the widely embraced definition of technology. In this regard, we see technology is different areas of our lives. These will include medicine, engineering, geology, business administration, pharmacology, sports, education, agriculture, e-commerce stores, religion, automobiles and so on.

You can read on how to start a home based fish farming here.


  • Technology is defined as methods, systems, and devices which are the result of scientific knowledge being used for practical purposes

The above definition is an encompassing definition of technology since it summarizes all the aforementioned definitions. In this regard, this definition includes not just the manner at which the various technologies are achieved, but also the technological devices, systems and discoveries alongside the processes of attaining such knowledge.


  • Another definition of technology is 'a better way of doing things'.

The above definition distinguishes the past from the present. As an instance, I don't have to go to a shopping mall to buy my needs. Rather, I can order them online and get them delivered to me at the comfort of my home. This is a function of the internet which is considered by many as one of the greatest technological advancements. However, it is noteworthy to state that the internet technology has advanced every area of our lives including communication, business, social life, sports, advertisments, automobiles, agriculture, finances and so on.

Please read on the internet and world wide web here.

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Amazing facts in Basic Technology

Rubber bands - Len Academy

Rubber bands last longer when refrigerated

Lighter was invented before matches

Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner was credited with the invention of lighter in 1826 while the match was made 3 years later

Volkswagen group of companies own some of the top cars of the world. These are Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Ducati, Lamborghini and Porsche

Notable points in Basic Technology

Arrowhead Lines - Len Academy

Arrowhead lines are lines with pointed edges at one or both ends. The pointed edges are in the form of an arrow.

Arrowhead lines are used:

  • At the end of dimensional lines.

  • As measurement lines.

Please read more on types of line here.

A thin continuous line could be a straight or curved line. However, the main point to remember is this: 'it is a tiny line with no dot or dashes within it'.


A thin continuous line is used for representing the followings:

  • Projection lines

  • Hatching lines

  • Construction lines

  • Short center lines

  • Measurement lines

  • Diagonal lines used to state plane surfaces

  • Intersections

  • Leader lines

  • Backside section lines

Any action that involves the servicing, checking, replacing and repairing of an equipment, object or device is termed maintenance.

Maintenance has two main goals. These are:

  1. To prevent a breakdown

  2. To repair the breakdown


Below are the types of maintenance:

  • Preventive maintenance

  • Corrective maintenance

  • Predictive maintenance

  • Periodic maintenance

  • Reinforcement

  • Overhaul

Please read more on maintenance here.


Softwoods are often derived from coniferous trees, that is: trees with needle-like leaves, and whose seeds are covered in cones.

Below are some characteristics of softwood:

  • Most softwood have lower densities than hardwood (weighs lower).

  • In terms of price, they are often less expensive than hardwood.

  • Their growth rate is faster than hardwood.

  • Most softwood do not shed their needle-like leaves during the year. However, the softwood 'larch' and 'cypress' are exceptions.

  • They are less fire resistant.

Please read on hardwood and softwood here

The diagram below shows the various types of line in technical drawing, their description and general application:

Type of Lines - Len Academy

Please read more on the types of line in technical drawing here