Topics in BiologyCharacteristics of saltwater habitat Aquatic habitat explained with its types Types of habitat: Terrestrial habitat explained with examples What is habitat? Difference between plant cell and animal cell Nucleus explained with its structures Nucleus explained with its types and functions Organelles of the cell explained with their characteristics Eukaryotic cell explained with its characteristics Prokaryotic cell explained with its structure Characteristics of prokaryotic cell Concept of cell Cell theory in biology Importance and limitations of ecological pyramid Protists explained with their characteristics Contents of the scrotum: Epididymis, vas deferens, spermatic cord and cremaster muscle Tropical savanna explained with its characteristics Concept of ecological pyramid Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples
Academic Questions in Biology
From the above diagram, which of the organ below isn't a requirement for the male reproductive system?
C. Glans Penis
E. Bulbourethral Gland
A walnut shaped male accessory sex organ located between the bladder and penis is the _____.
A. Ductus Ejaculatorii
B. Bulbourethral Gland
C. Prostate Gland
D. Ductus Deferens
E. Seminal Vesicles
In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level _____.
Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.
F. None of the above
All reptiles are vertebrates.
_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.
_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.
Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?
The term habitat originates from the Latin word 'habitātus', which in English language is synonymous (or can be likened) to a natural territory, natural environment, or a natural home.
A habitat refers to the home of living organisms. Simply put, it is the natural environment where organisms live. Organisms in this regard will refer to animals, plants, fungi, protists, monerans and archaea respectively.
The habitat support its organisms by providing them with food, shelter, space, and mates. These are necessary for the growth, development and reproduction of all organisms dwelling in a habitat. Furthermore, organisms possess various features that help them adapt to their habitat.
The adaptative features possessed by species of organisms are crucial for the organisms' survival. For instance, the zebra lives in the savanna, alongside the lion and other predators. In order to adapt and survive in this environment, it has a striped appearance which gives it a form of dazzle camouflage. During a chase by its predator, the striped appearance breaks up the zebra's appearance, making it difficult for predators to accurately calculate its distance when chasing it. This gives rise to the predator's misplaced strikes during hunting.
Apart from the above adaptive feature of the zebra, it also has a powerful hindlimb and hoof which can be used to strike a devastating kick on an attacking predator.
The needs of organisms within their habitat can be specific or flexible. As an instance, the needs of an earthworm can be quite specific towards its survival. In this regard, most earthworm species requires a moist soil with little amounts of sunlight, alongside the presence of dead plant materials for nutrition. For this reason, they are most abundant in the rainforests. However, they are also present in areas with moist soil and little sunlight around our environment.
The term 'ecology' refers to the study of organisms in relation to their environment, habitat (or where they dwell and thrive). Therefore, scientist who study the habitat of organisms are termed ecologists.
The physical space occupied by an organism within a habitat and its functional role in that habitat is termed ecological nitch. You can think of an ecological nitch as the specific location and occupation of an organism within its habitat. For example, a caterpillar (or butterfly larva) and an aphid may live on different parts of the same same plant, performing different functions. In this regard, the caterpillar typically thrive on the leaves, while the aphid may dwell on the stem of the same plant, getting its nutrition from the sap. As a result, both are said to occupy different ecological nitch on the same plant.
We also have the concept of a microhabitat. You can think of it as a habitat within a habitat. In this regard, a habitat may have a small region within it, and such region will often be characterized with its unique weather conditions, nutrients, and other resources which are quite different from those present in other parts of the larger habitat.
The composition of a microhabitat will give rise to specific sets of organisms living within it. For example, an oasis may be present within a desert. Think of an oasis as a small fertile area containing water within a desert. Such oasis will present itself as a microhabitat for various organisms compatible with its environmental composition. In this regard, the biotic and abiotic components of a microhabitat is markedly different from those of the general habitat where it is present.
The concept of habitat in parasitology will refer to the place, location or environment where a parasite thrives. Therefore, the habitat of parasites are typically within the body of humans and other animals, in which both are often referred to as a host. As an instance, the habitat of plasmodium falciparum (which is the malaria parasite) is within the female anopheles mosquito, and the blood of humans respectively. In another example, the human pinworm called Enterobius vermicularis thrives in the colon and rectum of humans. The Ascaris lumbricoides is another parasitic roundworm that dwells in the intestine of humans as its habitat.
Generally, a habitat support all its organisms with the necessary components towards their survival. The factors (or components) that are necessary for the survival of organisms within their habitat can be either biotic or abiotic.
Biotic component of a habitat refers to all the living organisms present in that habitat. These organisms interact with one another to ensure their survival. As an instance, the savanna is a terrestrial habitat comprising of grasses, alongside animals like zebra, buffalo, lions, hyenas and so on. These organisms make up the biotic component of that habitat, and they must interact with one another through a food chain. In this regard, the zebras and buffaloes feed on the grasses, while the lions prey on the zebras and buffaloes respectively.
The abiotic factors of a habitat refers to its non-living components. These abiotic components are crucial towards the survival of the habitat's biotic component. Simple put, without the abiotic components, the biotic or living components of the habitat will cease to exist. Examples of abiotic components include the following:
Climatic factors like temperature, pressure, wind, sunlight, humidity, rainfall, light intensity, and so on.
Edaphic factors include topography, soil, rocks and so on.
Inorganic substances. They include mineral salts, vitamins, carbon(IV)oxide, oxygen, nitrogen and other nutrients.
With regards to plants and their habitat, the necessary conditions required for their survival will include soil, light, water, air, organic matter, minerals and so on. A lack of these abiotic factors may lead to deficiency diseases, or even the death of plant life.
It is noteworthy to state that abiotic factors like wildfires and drought may also affect the community of organisms (plant and animals) in a habitat.
Habitat can be generally put into three types. These are terrestrial, aquatic and arboreal habitat respectively.
Terrestrial habitat is present on land, and can be grouped (or divided) into the following:
Grassland or Savanna
Please read the concept of a savanna biome here.
Boreal forest or Taigas
Examples of terrestrial organisms include cattle, poultry animals, mountain animals, fox, tiger, insects, cats, rattlesnake, various land plants like orange, cactus, and so on.
Aquatic habitat is a home to organisms that thrives in water. It can be put into the following types:
Examples of aquatic organisms include fishes, sea lion, crab, shrimp, aquatic insects, whales, eels, algae, seaweed, wild rice, water caltrop, water hyacinth, fragrant water lily and so on.
Arboreal habitats refers to various parts of trees where organisms live and thrive upon. In this regard, an arboreal habitat can be present on the root, stem, leaves, branches, flowers, and even the holes within a tree.
Arboreal habitat are most abundant in the tropical rainforest where numerous trees are present. These trees serve as home to a variety of animals, and even certain plants termed epiphytes. Examples of arboreal organisms include birds, monkeys, insects, lizards, squirrels, koalas, sloths, cats, snakes and so on.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Russia is home to the largest area of forest in our world with a land mass of 815 million hectares
Giant squid lives deep in the ocean and they have the largest eyes in the world
The movements of the fingers are controlled by muscles of the palms and forehands
Platypus (sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus) is an egg-laying, semiaquatic mammal found in eastern Australia. It has no stomach and as such, its food goes from the mouth through the esophagus and directly to their intestines.
Pufferfish contain a toxin called tetrodotoxin. This makes them foul tasting and poisonous to predators. Tetrodotoxin is about 1,200 times more poisonous than cyanide, and there is enough toxin in one pufferfish to kill 30 adult humans. Unfortunately, there isn't any known antidote to this poison.
Interestingly, a delicacy in Japan (called fugu) is made from pufferfish. This meal is very expensive, and must be prepared by trained and licensed chefs. An improper preparation of fugu may lead to the customer's death. Sadly, such deaths are recorded annually
Wombats are the only animal with a cube-shaped poo. They can stack up these cube-shaped poo, marking their territory with it
Robert Wadlow (1918–1940) remains the tallest man ever recorded in the Guinness World Records. He was an American who stood at 8 feet, 11 inches.
An abnormally enlarged pituitary gland had resulted into Robert Wadlow's giant size.
Cockroach is the fastest land animal on six legs
Like humans, all apes laugh when tickled
An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain
Notable points in Biology
An artery is composed of three layers:
The outermost layer is termed tunica adventitia (or tunica external). It consist mainly of collagen fibres and connective tissues that anchors the arteries to other nearby tissues.
The middle layer is named tunica media. It is made up of smooth muscles and elastic fibres that supports the artery in conveying blood at high pressures.
The inner layer is called tunica intima (or tunica internal). It is lined by a smooth tissue called endothelium, and is made up of a fine network of connective tissues.
All living organisms possess various features in order to survive in their environment. This is the concept of adaptation. As an instance, a fish is able to live in water because it has gills and fins.
Also, a camel is able to survive in the desert because it has large feet to aid walking on sand without sinking. It also has long eyelashes to help protect it from the blowing sand and wind.
Plants are also able to live in different habitats because they have the required adaptive features towards that habitat. For instance:
Plants that live in/on water are termed hydrophytes.
Plants that live on land with moderate amount of water are termed mesophytes.
Plants that live on deserts or arid lands are termed xerophytes.
The point is:
All organisms have various features on them that enables them adapt in their habitat
For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types: