Topics in BiologyCharacteristics of saltwater habitat Aquatic habitat explained with its types Types of habitat: Terrestrial habitat explained with examples What is habitat? Difference between plant cell and animal cell Nucleus explained with its structures Nucleus explained with its types and functions Organelles of the cell explained with their characteristics Eukaryotic cell explained with its characteristics Prokaryotic cell explained with its structure Characteristics of prokaryotic cell Concept of cell Cell theory in biology Importance and limitations of ecological pyramid Protists explained with their characteristics Contents of the scrotum: Epididymis, vas deferens, spermatic cord and cremaster muscle Tropical savanna explained with its characteristics Concept of ecological pyramid Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples
Academic Questions in Biology
From the above diagram, which of the organ below isn't a requirement for the male reproductive system?
C. Glans Penis
E. Bulbourethral Gland
A walnut shaped male accessory sex organ located between the bladder and penis is the _____.
A. Ductus Ejaculatorii
B. Bulbourethral Gland
C. Prostate Gland
D. Ductus Deferens
E. Seminal Vesicles
In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level _____.
Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.
F. None of the above
All reptiles are vertebrates.
_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.
_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.
Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?
Aquatic habitat may be defined as bodies of water where organisms naturally live in. Simply put, it is a water area serving as home to a variety of organisms. The living creatures dwelling here are generally termed aquatic organisms, and they find their food, shelter and mates within the waterbody.
Aquatic habitat comprises of the biotic and abiotic components. The biotic component refers to all the living organisms present in an aquatic habitat; and these are adapted to survive within its minimal oxygen environment. Meanwhile, understand that the amounts of available oxygen is lower in aquatic habitat when compared to their terrestrial counterpart.
Just as organisms of the terrestrial habitat, aquatic organisms can be classified in three main groups. These are the producers, consumers and decomposers.
The producers in commences the food chain in all habitats. Aquatic organisms that are producers include the hydrophytes that manufacture food through a process termed photosynthesis. Examples are phytoplanktons, algae (sea weed), seagrass, duckweed, eichhornia, vallisneria, kelp, hyacinths, cattails, water lily and so on. However, certain aquatic bacteria may also manufacture food through a process termed chemosynthesis.
The consumers in aquatic habitat are typically animals. They include the fishes, insects, sharks, dolphins, seals, whales and so on. Some of these feed on the aforementioned producers, while others may feed on other aquatic animals.
Decomposers in aquatic habitat include the bacteria, fungi, echinoderms, marine worms, trumpet snails, mushrooms, certain crustaceans and molluscs. They bring about the decomposition of dead aquatic organisms.
Abiotic components of an aquatic habitat refers to those non-living components present in the water bodies, and are crucial to the aquatic organisms' survival. They include water pH, light, water temperature, salinity level of water, oxygen concentration, nutrients, velocity of water, substrate, tides and waves.
The biotic and abiotic components of various water bodies give rise to the aquatic ecosystems.
Aquatic habitat is the largest habitat on earth. The bodies of water comprising this habitat are quite numerous. They include the ocean, sea, river, lake, pond, bay, wetland, lagoon, marshes, bug, swamps and so on. However, these aquatic habitats can be generally categorized into three. They are:
As the name imply, their waters are highly concentrated with dissolved salts, especially sodium chloride (NaCl). For this reason, they are described as saline water. On average, about 35 to 37 gram of salt (NaCl) is present in each kilogram of seawater.
The saltwater habitat is often termed as a marine habitat. On average, they have a salinity of 35ppt to 37ppt (ppt means parts per thousand). In simple terms, salinity refers to the amount of dissolved salt within a body of water. You can think of it as the concentration of salt in water.
Marine organisms can easily float in saline waters since they have a high density of about 1.03g/cm3 at its surface. This density reduces as one goes deeper into the ocean. Similarly, the oxygen concentration is highest at its surface, and reduces beneath the waters. Tides and waves are often observed in the marine habitat.
The oceans and seas are examples of a saltwater habitat. They are the largest habitat on earth. In fact, it covers about 70% of the earth's surface, and account for 97% of earth's water supply.
With regards to the ocean, organisms that live on its surface area termed neuston. Examples are the golden seaweed, barnacles and marine snails. They act often as producers and primary consumers in the marine food chain.
The marine habitat can be grouped into zones with regards to its varying water depths and shoreline features. These zones include:
Oceanic zone: It comprises the vast ocean space (or the sea). They include the atlantic ocean, pacific ocean, indian ocean, antarctic ocean and arctic ocean respectively. Animals present here include sharks, orca, dolphins, starfish, sea lion, seahorses and whales.
Benthic zone: They contain the lowest level of water. Beneath the water lies a good amount of substrate upon which organisms thrive upon. The organisms in the benthic zone are termed as benthos. Examples are crustaceans, molluscs, worms, sponges, sea anemone, bivalves and bacteria.
Intertidal zone: You can think of this zone as the foreshore, seashore or littoral zone. Several invertebrates of different phyla are present here. The include the annelids (segmented worms), coelenterates, molluscs, and anthropods.
Neritic zone: These zone are present in mangrove swamps, lagoons, mudflats, marshes and meadows. The waters here aren't deep. Animals seen here are lobsters, clams, oysters, scallops, crab and shrimp.
The community of plants present in the saltwater habitat are termed as halophytes. Simply put, a halophyte is a salt-tolerant plant that thrives in saline soil (or waters). They include seaweeds, algae, planktons, seagrass, mangrove trees, kelp and sargassum.
Animal community of the saltwater include shrimps, periwinkles, barnacles, sharks, orca (killer whale), dolphins, turtle, eel, jellyfish, octopus, water striders, tuna, starfish and so on. These organisms may become adapted to living under harsh temperature and pressure.
Although the freshwater habitat account for just about 3% of earth's water, it still represent a home to a large variety of living organisms. In addition, freshwaters like rivers and streams have served as a source of drinkable water in many rural communities. The people of these communities may also wash their clothes, carry out fishing activities, and even bath in these freshwaters.
In biology, the term limnology refers to a study regarding the freshwater ecosystems. Therefore, scientist that study freshwaters are termed limnologists.
Freshwater habitat (or ecosystems) include the rivers, lakes ponds, creeks, streams, bugs, springs, swamps and wetlands. They have very low or insignificant salinity, and are much smaller in size when compared to the salt water habitat. Also, they are less deep than their saltwater counterpart. However, freshwater is more easily penetrated by sunlight, and will also contain more oxygen than marine water.
The concept of freshwater ecosystem refers to the interaction of living (biotic) factors, and non-living factors (abiotic) within the freshwater. Freshwater ecosystems are of different types. They include the following:
Lotic Ecosystem: Their waters are fast moving. They include the rivers, streams and springs.
Lentic Ecosystem: The waters are slow moving. Examples are the lakes and ponds.
Wetland Ecosystem: The waters are present on the soil and will often saturate it, either seasonally or permanently.
With regards to surface area, the largest freshwater lake in the world is Lake Superior in North America (USA and Canada). It reaches a size of over 31,000 square miles and depth of about 1,300 feet.
The longest freshwater river is the Nile River, with a length of about 6650 kilometers. It is present in Africa and flows through Egypt, Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Burundi, Sudan, and South Sudan. Lake Victoria is considered to be the source of river nile.
Examples of freshwater plants include spirogyra, water lettuce, algae, water lily, cattails, water weed, aspen, and willow trees. The animal community present in freshwater include alligators, snakes, frogs, lake trout, mayfly, hippopotamus, crocodiles, herons, kingfisher, crayfish, catfish, freshwater crab, and a variety of fishes and insects.
The world's largest freshwater habitat is the 1.5 million acre water body named Everglades in southern Florida.
The brackish water (or brack water) is formed at estuaries where freshwater and saltwater mixes together. You can think of estuaries as the point (or region) where a river meets the sea.
All rivers drain into a larger body of water, typically the ocean. However, a few rivers may drain into lakes. Recall that the ocean is a saltwater, while a river is considered freshwater. Consequently, the region of meeting between the river and sea creates a unique type of aquatic habitat whose water can become somewhat salty. In fact, the term brackish means 'somewhat salty'. A brackish water is therefore more salty than freshwater but less salty than the ocean (or sea).
Brackish water are generally grouped into delta, bay and lagoons. Their waters are quite shallow with high level of nutrients. It often has a varying amount of salinity with low amounts of oxygen. Brackish water contain more salt (more salinity) than freshwater, but are less saline than saltwater. Their salinity is between 0.5g - 30g of salt per liter (0.5ppt - 30ppt).
Examples of brackish water include river Thames in London, Baltic sea, Hudson bay, lake Texoma and various mangrove swamps (or mangal).
Examples of plants found in the brackish water habitat include coontail, waterweeds, water hyssop, marimo and anubias. Animal community present in brackish water are catfish, fiddler crab, catfish, lamprey, pufferfish, herring, salmon, mudskipper, hippopotamus, dragonfly, bull sharks, and various aquatic insects.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Russia is home to the largest area of forest in our world with a land mass of 815 million hectares
Giant squid lives deep in the ocean and they have the largest eyes in the world
The movements of the fingers are controlled by muscles of the palms and forehands
Platypus (sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus) is an egg-laying, semiaquatic mammal found in eastern Australia. It has no stomach and as such, its food goes from the mouth through the esophagus and directly to their intestines.
Pufferfish contain a toxin called tetrodotoxin. This makes them foul tasting and poisonous to predators. Tetrodotoxin is about 1,200 times more poisonous than cyanide, and there is enough toxin in one pufferfish to kill 30 adult humans. Unfortunately, there isn't any known antidote to this poison.
Interestingly, a delicacy in Japan (called fugu) is made from pufferfish. This meal is very expensive, and must be prepared by trained and licensed chefs. An improper preparation of fugu may lead to the customer's death. Sadly, such deaths are recorded annually
Wombats are the only animal with a cube-shaped poo. They can stack up these cube-shaped poo, marking their territory with it
Robert Wadlow (1918–1940) remains the tallest man ever recorded in the Guinness World Records. He was an American who stood at 8 feet, 11 inches.
An abnormally enlarged pituitary gland had resulted into Robert Wadlow's giant size.
Cockroach is the fastest land animal on six legs
Like humans, all apes laugh when tickled
An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain
Notable points in Biology
An artery is composed of three layers:
The outermost layer is termed tunica adventitia (or tunica external). It consist mainly of collagen fibres and connective tissues that anchors the arteries to other nearby tissues.
The middle layer is named tunica media. It is made up of smooth muscles and elastic fibres that supports the artery in conveying blood at high pressures.
The inner layer is called tunica intima (or tunica internal). It is lined by a smooth tissue called endothelium, and is made up of a fine network of connective tissues.
All living organisms possess various features in order to survive in their environment. This is the concept of adaptation. As an instance, a fish is able to live in water because it has gills and fins.
Also, a camel is able to survive in the desert because it has large feet to aid walking on sand without sinking. It also has long eyelashes to help protect it from the blowing sand and wind.
Plants are also able to live in different habitats because they have the required adaptive features towards that habitat. For instance:
Plants that live in/on water are termed hydrophytes.
Plants that live on land with moderate amount of water are termed mesophytes.
Plants that live on deserts or arid lands are termed xerophytes.
The point is:
All organisms have various features on them that enables them adapt in their habitat
For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types: