Basic Science

What is science? Qualities of a scientist

len Alfred Ajibola - 18th January, 2024 @ 10:57 AM

Topics in Basic Science

What is science? Qualities of a scientist Resources from living things Resources from animals Importance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1 Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Microorganisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton


Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following diseases is associated with river blindness?

  • A. Anthrax

  • B. Lawnmower Disease

  • C. Onchocerciasis

  • D. Devil's Crunch

  • E. Trypanosomiasis

  • F. Tularemia

The vector for yellow fever is _____.

  • A. Aedes Mosquito

  • B. Female Anopheles Mosquito

  • C. Plasmodium

  • D. Flavivirus

  • E. Black Fly

  • F. Bacillus Anthracis

The bones of the head and face make up the skull. These bones are _____ in number.

  • A. 12

  • B. 14

  • C. 16

  • D. 18

  • E. 20

  • F. 22

Bacteria are not a constituent of our environment.

  • A. True

  • B. False

Below are types of drugs. Which of these is considered as pain killers?

  • A. Stimulants

  • B. Depressants

  • C. Opiods and Morphine Derivatives

  • D. Hallucinogens

  • E. Anabolic Steroids

  • F. Cannabinoids

Which of the following statement is false concerning drugs?

  • A. Drugs can be inhaled

  • B. Drugs can be injected directly into the bloodstream 

  • C. Drugs can be eaten

  • D. Drugs exist exclusively in the forms of tablets and syrups

  • E. Drugs can be placed under the tongue

  • F. Drugs can be taken with water or another liquid

Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.

  • A. True

  • B. False

With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.

  • A. International bodies

  • B. Antilators

  • C. Antibodies

  • D. Antigens

  • E. Antibiotics

  • F. Antidotes



What is Science?

Humans are often curious about their environment, and as a result tend to explore it. This exploration, or study of the human environment is what science entails.

You can think of your environment as everything that surrounds you. This will include the air you breathe, your clothes, the phone or computer through which you're reading this article, and so on. However, your environment can be either natural or man-made.

Meanwhile, recall that the environment consist of living (biotic) components, and nonliving (abiotic) components, all of which are composed of matter.

You can read on the environment and other ecological concepts here.

 

Note the following:

  • Biotic components refer to the living things present in our environment.

  • Abiotic components refers to the nonliving things in our environment.

  • Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. 

  • Please read more on the concept of matter here.

 

From the above terminologies, science can be defined thus:

  • Science is the systematic study of matter comprising our natural and man made environment (including all biotic and abiotic components) through observation, identification, hypothesis, sorting, experimentation, and theoretical conclusions.

 

It is worthy of note to state that a systematic approach is always followed during the course of scientific study. For this reason, the results obtained through science are always consistent, applicable whenever and wherever applied (that is; universal), and must stand the test of time.

You can attempt Len Academy questions for basic science here

 

Anyone involved in the dedicated study of science is termed a scientist. We have various types of scientists, with each specialized in their field of research (or interest). In this regard, they are addressed based on their area of specialization.

The table below shows the types of scientists alongside their field of study.

Scientists Field of Speciality
Botanist Plant kingdom and plant life in general
Zoologist Animal kingdom and animal life in general
Physicist Fundamental principles governing matter, energy, space and time on a mathematical level
Cardiologist Heart diseases and abnormalities
Urologist Diagnoses and treats the genitourinary system. This include the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
Astronomer Celestial objects like the stars, solar system, planets, galaxies and the universe
Microbiologist

Microbes (microorganisms)
Please read on microorganisms causing food, water and air borne diseases here.

Psychologist Behavior, cognition, emotions and thoughts in humans and animals
Geneticist Genes
Forensic Scientist Give forensic analysis on how a person or animal died
Chemists Investigates the composition, behavior, properties and uses of matter, alongside the capabilities of chemicals
Geologist Earth's composition, structures and history, including the study rocks, minerals, fossils, plate tectonics, natural resources, and geological processes such as earthquakes and volcanoes.
Computer Scientist Algorithms, programming languages, and computational systems. 
Sociologist Social relationship and human relationship
Biology Living organisms and their interactions
Environmental Science Focuses on environmental pollution, climate change, plant and wildlife conservation, global environmental policies and sustainable development
Marine biologist

Ocean life
Please read on salt water explained with its characteristics here.

Ecologist Relationship between organisms and their environment
Surgeons Surgical operations on patients
Investigator Scientist Digs into the unknown through observations, mapping, understanding and piecing together in-depth knowledge and data, setting out the landscape for others to translate and develop

Please read on the forms.of technology here.

 

Qualities of a Scientist:

Apart from possessing the practical knowledge of utilizing scientific instruments, alongside the interpretation of scientific experiments, a good scientist is expected to possess the following qualities:

  1. They should be observant.

  2. They show alertness and inquisitiveness.

  3. They are quick to record observations.

  4. They show curiosity and the desire to always learn.

  5. The utilze the use of logic to formulate hypothesis.

  6. They make good utilization of their sense organs, especially their eyes and ears.

  7. They show willingness to share their ideas with colleagues and superiors.

  8. They are excellent listeners.

  9. You can read on the unique characteristics of man here.

 

Scientist utilize logical investigation, experimentation and questioning in order to gain reliable knowledge. This knowledge is gathered (through scientific research), and utilized to provide answers to numerous questions in our world. The scientific methods include:

 

In order to become specialized in a science related occupation, one is required to be trained in one or more field of science displicines.

Science related occupations refers to a collective group of works (or jobs) oriented towards science, or in the field of science. These occupations are derived from the following academic disciplines:

You can read on the hind brain (medulla oblongata) and its features here.

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Amazing facts in Basic Science

According to scientific research, if the first tear drop comes from the right eye, it’s tears of joy. If it comes from the left eye, then it is as a result of pain

Dentistry is the oldest profession in the world. This is considered true because a research conducted by the University of Bologna, Italy on a 14,000-year-old skull found that one rotten tooth in the jaw had been deliberately scoured and scraped with a dental tool

Scientific research has it that the human nose can distinguish more than a trillion different odors

Tiger fur and skin - Len Academy

Tigers have striped fur. So also is their skin

Red-Billed Quelea - Len Academy

The most common wild bird in the world is native to Africa, and it's the red-billed quelea with a population estimated to be around 1.5 billion

Of all animals, mosquitoes hold the record of killing most humans annually. They are responsible for the deaths of 725,000 - 1,000,000 persons yearly

Antibiotics fights and kills bacteria. However, they do nothing to a virus

All insects have six legs. However, dragonfly has six legs but can't walk

The chin is defined as the protruding part of the face below the mouth, formed by the apex of the lower lip. It is shown below:

Chin - Len Academy

Interestingly, humans are the only animals with chin

Cranberries - Len Academy

Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water


Notable points in Basic Science

We have six classes of food. These are:

  1. Carbohydrates

  2. Proteins

  3. Fats and Oils

  4. Vitamins

  5. Mineral Salts

  6. Water

In humans, roughages are not classified as one of the classes of food. This is so because they aren't digested. Instead, roughages facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon); and for this reason, they can become useful in treating constipation.

Food refers to anything that is ingested by living organisms, giving them nutrients and thus enabling them to stay alive.

As an instance, 99% of a panda's diet is bamboo. In this case, bamboo is considered as food to a panda since it provides a source of nutrient and keeps it alive. This is shown in the image below:

Panda eating bamboo - Len Academy

Please read more on food here

The only process in nature that actively enriches our atmosphere with oxygen is photosynthesis. Every other process like respiration, burning and combustion takes away oxygen from it. In addition, they introduce carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) into the atmosphere.

Photosynthesis is also the only process that takes away carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) from the atmosphere.

Photosynthesis is defined as a process by which green plants manufacture food by utilizing carbon(IV)oxide and water in the presence of sunlight.

Oxygen is given off as a by-product of photosynthesis. In regards to this, it is recommended that each person plants a tree.

Matter is composed of particles which can be:

  1. Tightly packed together (as seen in solids).

  2. Loosely packed together (as seen in liquids).

  3. Completely separated (as seen in gases).

The movement of the particles of matter is a function of the overall kinetic energy present in them. You can think of kinetic energy as energy in motion.

An increase in the particles' vibrational, rotational or translational motion will imply an increase in temperature while a decrease in the particles motion (vibrational, rotational and translational) will mean a decrease in temperature. Based on this knowledge, we can therefore define temperature as the measure of the average kinetic energy possessed by the particles of matter.

You can read on the concept of matter here

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a score derived from a set of standardized tests developed to measure a person's cognitive abilities in relation to their age group.

IQ may also be defined as the ratio of mental age (MA) to chronological age (CA) multiplied by 100.

Below are some formulas pertaining Intelligence Quotient:

  • IQ = MA x 100 ÷ CA

  • MA = Mental age

  • CA = Chronological age

  • IQ above 100 = Brilliance

  • IQ that equals 100 = Average

  • IQ below 100 = Below Average