Agricultural Science

Land as a factor of production in agriculture

len Alfred Ajibola - 05th April, 2024 @ 09:38 AM

Topics in Agricultural Science

Soil formation in agricuture Economic empowerment through agricuture Management as a factor of production in agriculture Labor as a factor of production in agriculture Finance as a factor of production in agriculture Water as a factor of production in agriculture Land as a factor of production in agriculture Len Academy Agricultural Science midterm questions for JSS1, 2nd term Len Academy Agricultural Science midterm questions for jss2, 2nd term Clay soil explained with its types and characteristics Loamy soil explained with its characteristics Sandy soil: Characteristics of sandy soil and ways to make it fertile Soil explained with its composition Types of agricultural practices Crop rotation explained Benefits of crop rotation Differences between subsistence and commercial farming Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics What is commercial farming? Types of commercial farming Characteristics of commercial farming

Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

The ideal pH for the optimum growth of most agricultural crop is between _____.

  • A. 1 – 3.5

  • B. 4 – 5.5

  • C. 6 – 7.5

  • D. 8 – 9.5

  • E. 10 – 11.5

  • F. 12 – 13.5

People who go about their lives by raising and herding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats are said to practice _____.

  • A. Pastoralism

  • B. Pasturalism

  • C. Herding

  • D. Herdsmen

  • E. Animalism

  • F. Anime Farming

The act of giving birth in pigs is called _____.

  • A. Calving

  • B. Piggery

  • C. Kidding

  • D. Farrowing

  • E. Calfing

  • F. Pigging

Which of the following is not a vegetable?

  • A. Cashew

  • B. Cocumber

  • C. Tomatoes

  • D. Carrot

  • E. Squash

  • F. Eggplant

All plants are crops.

  • A. True

  • B. False

In agriculture, macronutrients are essential nutrients required by plants. Which of the following is not a macronutrient?

  • A. Zinc

  • B. Sulphur

  • C. Calcium

  • D. Phosphorus

  • E. Potassium

  • F. Magnesium

Which of the following is false concerning micronutrients?

  • A. They are non-essential nutrients

  • B. They are required by plants in minute quantities

  • C. Iron is a micronutrient

  • D. Chlorine is a micronutrient

  • E. Copper is a micronutrient

  • F. Boron is a micronutrient

_____ is a term that describes the biological, chemical and cultural control tactics employed to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable.

  • A. Integrated Pest Management

  • B. Integral Pest Management

  • C. International Pest Management

  • D. Inclusive Pest Management

  • E. Imbibed Pest Management

  • F. Inclusion Pest Management

Factors of production in agriculture:

Agriculture is the backbone of any nation's economy. It plays a crucial role in providing food, employment opportunities, and raw materials for various industries.

The success of agriculture heavily relies on a multitude of factors, known as the factors of production. They include land, water, labour, finance, and a management system. These factors are essential for the efficient and effective functioning of the agricultural sector.

Please read on agricultural machines and it's uses here.


Factors of production simply refers to the resources utilized by people to produce goods and services. With regards to agriculture, they serve as the building blocks through which farmers achieve their aim.

You can read on commercial farming here.


In this article, we will explore land as a factor of production in agriculture, alongside its significance.


Land as a factor of production in agriculture

Land is perhaps the most fundamental factor of production in agriculture. The availability of agricultural land is crucial for cultivating crops and rearing livestock.

From the above paragraph, the two main uses of agricultural land are listed below:


Meanwhile, understand that land can also be very useful in building various agricultural agencies and institutions across a country. 

A good agricultural land is dependent on various factors such as its quality, topography, fertility of its soil and accessibility to water sources. The availability of these factors will greatly impact agricultural productivity.

Please read on the ways to prevent soil erosion here.


Farmers must carefully evaluate the aforementioned factors before choosing the land for their agricultural activities. In fact, a good agricultural land should have the following characteristics:

  1. It should have a good fertile soil for the cultivation of crops.

  2. It should be easy to work in.

  3. It should be situated close to one or more water sources.

  4. The land must have a good topology. It should not be sloppy. Rather, it should be a plain (level) land.

  5. It should have a good water holding capacity, and not waterlogged.

  6. Its particles should have appropriate spacing such that it becomes easily aerated.

  7. The soil particles should have a good structure and texture.

You can read on the types of agricultural practices here.


Land in general (including non agricultural land) will have the following characteristics:

  • It is free gift of nature.

  • It has no cost of production; that is: it cannot be produced.

  • It is not movable.

  • It is fixed in supply.

  • The price of land is dependent on its location.

  • It is somewhat indestructible.

  • The reward of land is rent. However, understand that land may be traded in the barter system.

  • Please read more on the disadvantages of barter system.


It is worthy of note to reiterate that land plays a crucial role in determining the success and productivity of farming activities. For students interested in the field of agriculture, understanding the significance of land as a factor of production is vital.

One of the primary reasons why land is crucial in agriculture is its role in providing a suitable environment for plant and animal growth. In this regard, soil quality is a determining factor in the success of cultivating crops, and rearing animals. However, one of the difficulties encountered by farmers is seen in the acquisition of land, especially in developing countries.

Please read on the role of government in agriculture here.


Farmers can acquire land through the following ways:

  • Inheritance from their parents.

  • Allocation of land to people who wish to farm. Such allocation could be from the government, community rulers, relatives, elders and friends.

  • Leasing and renting of land from landowners.

  • Purchase of land directly from landowners.

  • People may acquire land as gifts from others.

You can read on forest reserve and its importance in Nigeria.


The composition of the soil, including its pH level, nutrient content, and drainage capacity, directly affects the growth and yield of crops. Different crops have specific soil requirements, and the availability of suitable land plays a significant role in meeting those requirements.

The proximity of agricultural land to water sources (river and lakes) is crucial. This is true because it greatly influences the irrigation methods used and the overall productivity of the farming activities. Meanwhile, recall that adequate water supply is necessary to ensure the healthy growth of crops, especially in regions with limited rainfall.

You can read on the differences between plants and crops here.


Land availability and accessibility also play a significant role in determining the viability of agricultural activities. Students interested in agriculture must consider factors such as land ownership, land use regulations, and land tenure systems. These factors can affect the ease of access to land and the ability to utilize it for agricultural purposes. Understanding land laws and regulations is crucial for students planning to pursue a career in agriculture.

Please read on soil explained with its composition here.


Below are the general importance of land (in agricultural and non agricultural activities):

  • Agricultural activities which include growing of crops and rearing of animals occurs on land.

  • Forestry and wildlife resources are present on land.

  • Factories, schools, hospitals and roads are built on land. These will generally improve the economy.

  • A different mineral resource such as crude oil, gold, coal, etc is derived from land.

  • Bodies of water such as rivers, lakes and sea which are part of the land area are used for transportation purposes which aid foreign trade.

  • It is the host of other factors of production in bringing about meaningful productive activities.


Recall that land also serves as a habitat for livestock, and plays a crucial role in animal husbandry practices. Adequate land space is essential for raising animals, providing them with grazing areas, and ensuring their overall well-being. The availability of land resources for livestock farming directly impacts the scale and profitability of animal husbandry activities.

You can attempt Len Academy mid term questions for JSS2, second term.


In conclusion, land is a vital factor of production in agriculture. Its significance lies in providing a suitable environment for crop growth, ensuring access to water resources for irrigation, and offering the right climate for different crops. Land availability, ownership, and regulations also impact agricultural activities.

For students interested in agriculture, understanding the role of land in farming is essential for successful and productive agricultural practices.

Please read on the types and uses of agricultural land here.

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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum

Peanuts are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments

Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them

Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd

Notable points in Agricultural Science

Below are characteristics of gymnosperms:

  1. Their seeds have cones that protect them.

  2. Sepals and petals aren't present in their cones.

  3. Stigma and style are absent.

  4. They do not produce fruits. Only seeds are formed.

  5. Companion cells are absent.

  6. Sporophyll form the cones.

  7. Anther and filament are absent.

  8. The ovules are not present in the ovary.

  9. Gymnosperms do not possess flowers.

  10. Please read on the anatomical differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms here

The flower is the reproductive organ in plants' sexual reproduction. In order to achieve a successful sexual propagation or reproduction in plants, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.

The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:

  1. Sepals

  2. Petals

  3. Stamen

  4. Carpel

The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.

The carpel (or pistil) is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.

Please read more on plants' sexual reproduction here

An organism will be considered a pest if it does one of the followings:

  • Attack crops and eat its seeds, roots, stem, leaves and flowers. Examples are locust and grasshoppers.

  • Cause damage to stored food, fruits or other agricultural produce. Some may even urinate or deaficate on these products. Examples are rodents, cockroaches and mice.

  • Attack and kill farm animals like goats, sheep and cattle. Examples are foxes, wild cats and snakes.

  • Act as disease vectors. A vector is an organism that carries parasite and other disease causing organisms, without being affected; but when they introduce the parasites into their host, such host becomes infected with disease. Examples of vectors are rodents and mosquitoes.

    Please read more on vectors of diseases here.

Below are the classification of crops based on their uses:

  • Oil crops

  • Vegetable crops

  • Latex crops

  • Drug and Medicinal crops

  • Beverage crops

  • Fibre crops

  • Fruit crops

  • Root and Tubers

  • Legumes

  • Spices

  • Cereals

All crops are plants but not all plants are crops. Below are some instances:

  • Weeds are considered as plants, not crops.

  • Parasitic plants are not necessarily crops. Examples of parasitic plants include mistletoe, corpse flower and striga.

  • Carnivorous or insectivorous plants are not necessarily crops. Examples are sundew, venus flytrap and pitcher plant. The image below shows a carnivorous plant (venus flytrap).

Venus flytrap - Len Academy


Meanwhile, always understand that all crops are plants, and they are grown for food, money or something beneficial.

Please read on plants versus crops here