Agricultural Science

Water as a factor of production in agriculture

len Alfred Ajibola - 06th April, 2024 @ 11:15 AM

Topics in Agricultural Science

Soil formation in agricuture Economic empowerment through agricuture Management as a factor of production in agriculture Labor as a factor of production in agriculture Finance as a factor of production in agriculture Water as a factor of production in agriculture Land as a factor of production in agriculture Len Academy Agricultural Science midterm questions for JSS1, 2nd term Len Academy Agricultural Science midterm questions for jss2, 2nd term Clay soil explained with its types and characteristics Loamy soil explained with its characteristics Sandy soil: Characteristics of sandy soil and ways to make it fertile Soil explained with its composition Types of agricultural practices Crop rotation explained Benefits of crop rotation Differences between subsistence and commercial farming Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics What is commercial farming? Types of commercial farming Characteristics of commercial farming

Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

The ideal pH for the optimum growth of most agricultural crop is between _____.

  • A. 1 – 3.5

  • B. 4 – 5.5

  • C. 6 – 7.5

  • D. 8 – 9.5

  • E. 10 – 11.5

  • F. 12 – 13.5

People who go about their lives by raising and herding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats are said to practice _____.

  • A. Pastoralism

  • B. Pasturalism

  • C. Herding

  • D. Herdsmen

  • E. Animalism

  • F. Anime Farming

The act of giving birth in pigs is called _____.

  • A. Calving

  • B. Piggery

  • C. Kidding

  • D. Farrowing

  • E. Calfing

  • F. Pigging

Which of the following is not a vegetable?

  • A. Cashew

  • B. Cocumber

  • C. Tomatoes

  • D. Carrot

  • E. Squash

  • F. Eggplant

All plants are crops.

  • A. True

  • B. False

In agriculture, macronutrients are essential nutrients required by plants. Which of the following is not a macronutrient?

  • A. Zinc

  • B. Sulphur

  • C. Calcium

  • D. Phosphorus

  • E. Potassium

  • F. Magnesium

Which of the following is false concerning micronutrients?

  • A. They are non-essential nutrients

  • B. They are required by plants in minute quantities

  • C. Iron is a micronutrient

  • D. Chlorine is a micronutrient

  • E. Copper is a micronutrient

  • F. Boron is a micronutrient

_____ is a term that describes the biological, chemical and cultural control tactics employed to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable.

  • A. Integrated Pest Management

  • B. Integral Pest Management

  • C. International Pest Management

  • D. Inclusive Pest Management

  • E. Imbibed Pest Management

  • F. Inclusion Pest Management

Factors of production in agriculture (water):

Water is a crucial factor in agricultural production. Without an adequate supply of water, crops cannot grow and thrive. As students, it is important to understand the significance of water in agriculture and the various ways in which it impacts the production process.

Please read on land as a factor of production in agriculture here.


Water for agriculture can be obtained through a variety of  ways. Below are some of the ways through which farmers obtain water for agriculture:

  • From rainfall.

  • Wells dug in farmlands.

  • From nearby water bodies like rivers, lakes, ponds and lagoons.

  • From canals constructed in irrigation schemes, where dams are built to make water available for farming.

  • From treated municipal sewage or industrial wastewater. These are sometimes referred to as reclaimed water.

  • Through cisterns. These are built to store rain water and irrigation water.

  • Surface runoff water from mild erosion.

  • Please read on soil erosion here.


Agricultural production system may be classified according the usage of water. For instance, an agricultural production system where farmers depend only on rainfall for water is termed rain-fed agriculture. This system of agricultural production (rain-fed) is typically practiced by small farmers in rural areas. Since rainfall may become very little during certain planting season, farmers practicing rain-fed agriculture will attempt to obtain water from other sources.

Another type of agricultural production system is the irrigated agriculture. Here, water from irrigation canal is supplied to crops and farm animals. This is a better system of agricultural production since their is always an availability of water for the growth of crops and animals respectively.

You can attempt Len Academy agric questions for JSS1 here.


One of the primary roles of water in agriculture is to provide hydration to plants. Just like humans, plants need water to survive and grow.

Water is absorbed through the roots of plants and transported to different parts of the plant, including the stem and leaves.

However, some of these water is eventually lost through the leaves of plants via a process termed transpiration. In this regard, water is utilized by plants to carry out essential functions such as photosynthesis and nutrient absorption.

Please read more on autotrophic nutrition and photosynthesis here.


In addition to hydration, water also plays a vital role in the transportation of nutrients within plants.

Nutrients present in the soil are dissolved in water, allowing plants to absorb them through their roots (via an active transport process). These nutrients (termed as mineral salts) are then transported to different parts of the plant, ensuring proper growth and development.

Without water, the transportation of nutrients would be severely hindered, leading to stunted growth and reduced crop yields.

You can read on soil explained with its composition here.


Another important aspect of water in agriculture is irrigation. In many regions, rainfall alone is not sufficient to meet the water requirements of crops.

Irrigation is a term that refers to the artificial application of water to agricultural fields, ensuring that plants receive an adequate supply of water throughout their growth cycle.

There are various methods of irrigation, including surface irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, and drip irrigation. Each method has its advantages and is suited to different types of crops and soil conditions.

Please read on agricultural tools and their uses here.


Water is not only essential for plant growth, but also for the maintenance of soil health.

Adequate water supply helps in maintaining the moisture content of the soil, preventing it from becoming too dry or too waterlogged. In this regard, the right moisture balance is crucial for the survival of beneficial soil microorganisms and the availability of nutrients to plants.

Please read on clay soil explained with its characteristics here.


  • Moreover, water helps in the breakdown of organic matter in the soil, facilitating nutrient release and improving soil structure.


Water management in agriculture is also important from an environmental perspective.

Proper water management practices, such as efficient irrigation techniques and water recycling, can help conserve water resources and reduce its adverse impact on natural ecosystems.

Excessive water use and inefficient irrigation methods can lead to water scarcity, degradation of water quality, and loss of biodiversity.

As students, it is crucial to be aware of these issues and advocate for sustainable water management practices in agriculture.

Please read on the ways to prevent soil erosion here.


Once again, it is noteworthy to reiterate that water is a critical factor in agricultural production. It serves the following functions in agriculture:

  1. It is essential for plant hydration.

  2. It is required in nutrient transportation.

  3. Water is the source of irrigation to farmlands.

  4. Water is a vital component in maintaining soil health.

  5. Water is a crucial part of aquaculture. Aquaculture involves the rearing of fish and other aquatic organisms. Without water, aquatic organisms cannot thrive.

  6. Livestock such as poultry, cattle and pigs require drinking water to maintain their health. Therefore, an adequate supply of water is essential for livestock production.

  7. Pesticides and fertilizers are often mixed with water during their application, thus ensuring their effective distribution throughout the farmland.

  8. Water is sometimes used for crop cooling, especially during hot temperatures. This is achieved via techniques like evaporative cooling to prevent heat stress on plants.

  9. Water cycle ensures environmental sustainability.

  10. Water is important in the maintenance of cell turgidity in plants.

  11. Water may be applied to crops in order to form a protective ice layer which protects them from frost damage. This is often called frost protection, and is practiced during cold seasons.

  12. Certain plants may grown in nutrient-rich water. This is termed hydroponics. In some instances, fish farming can be combined with hydroponics to form a symbiotic aquatic system.

  13. The cleaning of equipment, vehicles and other farm facilities are done with water. In this regard, water is crucial for maintaining good hygiene and consequently preventing the spread of diseases.

You can read on how to start a home based fish farming here.


As students, it is important to recognize the significance of water in agriculture and promote responsible water management practices. By understanding the role of water in agriculture, we can contribute to the sustainable growth and development of the agricultural sector.

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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum

Peanuts are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments

Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them

Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd

Notable points in Agricultural Science

Below are characteristics of gymnosperms:

  1. Their seeds have cones that protect them.

  2. Sepals and petals aren't present in their cones.

  3. Stigma and style are absent.

  4. They do not produce fruits. Only seeds are formed.

  5. Companion cells are absent.

  6. Sporophyll form the cones.

  7. Anther and filament are absent.

  8. The ovules are not present in the ovary.

  9. Gymnosperms do not possess flowers.

  10. Please read on the anatomical differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms here

The flower is the reproductive organ in plants' sexual reproduction. In order to achieve a successful sexual propagation or reproduction in plants, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.

The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:

  1. Sepals

  2. Petals

  3. Stamen

  4. Carpel

The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.

The carpel (or pistil) is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.

Please read more on plants' sexual reproduction here

An organism will be considered a pest if it does one of the followings:

  • Attack crops and eat its seeds, roots, stem, leaves and flowers. Examples are locust and grasshoppers.

  • Cause damage to stored food, fruits or other agricultural produce. Some may even urinate or deaficate on these products. Examples are rodents, cockroaches and mice.

  • Attack and kill farm animals like goats, sheep and cattle. Examples are foxes, wild cats and snakes.

  • Act as disease vectors. A vector is an organism that carries parasite and other disease causing organisms, without being affected; but when they introduce the parasites into their host, such host becomes infected with disease. Examples of vectors are rodents and mosquitoes.

    Please read more on vectors of diseases here.

Below are the classification of crops based on their uses:

  • Oil crops

  • Vegetable crops

  • Latex crops

  • Drug and Medicinal crops

  • Beverage crops

  • Fibre crops

  • Fruit crops

  • Root and Tubers

  • Legumes

  • Spices

  • Cereals

All crops are plants but not all plants are crops. Below are some instances:

  • Weeds are considered as plants, not crops.

  • Parasitic plants are not necessarily crops. Examples of parasitic plants include mistletoe, corpse flower and striga.

  • Carnivorous or insectivorous plants are not necessarily crops. Examples are sundew, venus flytrap and pitcher plant. The image below shows a carnivorous plant (venus flytrap).

Venus flytrap - Len Academy


Meanwhile, always understand that all crops are plants, and they are grown for food, money or something beneficial.

Please read on plants versus crops here