Agricultural Science

Labor as a factor of production in agriculture

len Alfred Ajibola - 11th April, 2024 @ 12:08 PM

Topics in Agricultural Science

Soil formation in agricuture Economic empowerment through agricuture Management as a factor of production in agriculture Labor as a factor of production in agriculture Finance as a factor of production in agriculture Water as a factor of production in agriculture Land as a factor of production in agriculture Len Academy Agricultural Science midterm questions for JSS1, 2nd term Len Academy Agricultural Science midterm questions for jss2, 2nd term Clay soil explained with its types and characteristics Loamy soil explained with its characteristics Sandy soil: Characteristics of sandy soil and ways to make it fertile Soil explained with its composition Types of agricultural practices Crop rotation explained Benefits of crop rotation Differences between subsistence and commercial farming Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics What is commercial farming? Types of commercial farming Characteristics of commercial farming

Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

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The ideal pH for the optimum growth of most agricultural crop is between _____.

  • A. 1 – 3.5

  • B. 4 – 5.5

  • C. 6 – 7.5

  • D. 8 – 9.5

  • E. 10 – 11.5

  • F. 12 – 13.5

People who go about their lives by raising and herding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats are said to practice _____.

  • A. Pastoralism

  • B. Pasturalism

  • C. Herding

  • D. Herdsmen

  • E. Animalism

  • F. Anime Farming

The act of giving birth in pigs is called _____.

  • A. Calving

  • B. Piggery

  • C. Kidding

  • D. Farrowing

  • E. Calfing

  • F. Pigging

Which of the following is not a vegetable?

  • A. Cashew

  • B. Cocumber

  • C. Tomatoes

  • D. Carrot

  • E. Squash

  • F. Eggplant

All plants are crops.

  • A. True

  • B. False

In agriculture, macronutrients are essential nutrients required by plants. Which of the following is not a macronutrient?

  • A. Zinc

  • B. Sulphur

  • C. Calcium

  • D. Phosphorus

  • E. Potassium

  • F. Magnesium

Which of the following is false concerning micronutrients?

  • A. They are non-essential nutrients

  • B. They are required by plants in minute quantities

  • C. Iron is a micronutrient

  • D. Chlorine is a micronutrient

  • E. Copper is a micronutrient

  • F. Boron is a micronutrient

_____ is a term that describes the biological, chemical and cultural control tactics employed to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable.

  • A. Integrated Pest Management

  • B. Integral Pest Management

  • C. International Pest Management

  • D. Inclusive Pest Management

  • E. Imbibed Pest Management

  • F. Inclusion Pest Management

Factor of production in agriculture (Labor):

Agriculture is one of the oldest and most essential industries in the world. It plays a crucial role in feeding the growing global population and providing resources for various industries. Within the agricultural sector, one of the key factors of production is labor.

  • Labor, in the context of agriculture, refers to the physical and mental effort exerted by individuals in farming activities. It involves tasks such as planting, cultivating, harvesting, and managing livestock. Without labor, agricultural production would come to a standstill.

You can read on finance as a factor of production in agriculture


In small farmlands, farmers may use their wives and children as labor. Such labor is called family labor, and is typically seen in subsistence farming.

However, large scale farming (commercial farming) will often require payed laborers to effectively carry out their jobs on large agricultural land. Such labor is termed hired labor.

Please read on the differences between subsistence and commercial farming here.


The importance of labor in agriculture cannot be overstated. Farmers rely on the hard work and dedication of skilled laborers to cultivate crops and raise animals. These individuals possess the knowledge and expertise necessary to ensure that farming activities are carried out efficiently and effectively.

You can attempt questions and answers in agricultural science here.


One of the primary roles of labor in agriculture is the clearing of agriculturural land, and making ridges in order to prepare it for crop cultivation. Also, planting, weeding, harvesting, storage and transportation require labor to be carried out successfully.

Skilled laborers know the optimal time for planting different crops, the proper techniques for sowing seeds, and how to handle various types of soil. Their expertise helps maximize crop yields and ensures the quality of agricutural produce.

Please read on land as a factor of production in agriculture here.


In addition to crop cultivation, labor is also crucial in the management of livestock.

Farmers rely on laborers to feed, breed, and care for animals. This includes tasks such as milking cows, shearing sheep, and maintaining animal health. Skilled laborers possess the necessary knowledge to ensure that livestock is well-nourished, healthy, and productive.

You can read on the prevention and control of crop pest here.


Labor in agriculture also plays a vital role in innovation and technological advancements.

As the industry continues to evolve, laborers are at the forefront of adopting new farming techniques and technologies. They are responsible for operating and maintaining agricultural machines such as tractors and harvesters, which contribute to increased productivity and efficiency.

Please read on agricultural machines and their uses here.


Furthermore, labor in agriculture contributes to the economic growth of rural communities.This is true because these communities often depend on agricultural activities as their primary source of income.

Employment opportunities in agriculture provide livelihoods for countless individuals and support local economies. Laborers in agriculture often form close-knit communities, supporting each other and fostering social cohesion.

Please read on the problems of agriculture in Nigeria here.


Labor is often considered as the factor of production that works on other factors of production. For this reason, it has wages (and salaries) as its reward.

Labor may be classified into four types. These are:

  1. Professional labor

  2. Skilled labor

  3. Semi skilled labor

  4. Unskilled labor

You can attempt Len Academy agric science questions here.


A professional labor in agricuture has the highest level of education and managerial knowledge. These professionals usually manage large agricutural enterprise, and may act consultants in some instances.

A skilled labor in agriculture is one who is trained, and experienced with good knowledge on controlling agricutural machine towards carrying our their task. Such machines will include tractors, harrowers, reapers, mowers and so on. Skilled laborers are essential for the successful cultivation of crops, management of livestock, and adoption of new technologies.

A semi skilled labor in agriculture is one who has only the basic skills necessary to operate simple machines. They typically receive less wages than skilled laborers.

An unskilled labor lack educational training in the use of agricutural tools and machines. They generally work with their hand, while also performing other manual tasks.

Please read on agricutural tools and their uses here.


In conclusion, the expertise and hard work of agriculturural labor contribute to an increased productivity, economic growth, and food security. In this regard, it is essential to recognize and support the invaluable role of labor in agriculture, while ensuring the well-being and safety of agricultural workers (laborers).


However, it is important to acknowledge some of the challenges faced by laborers in agriculture. The physical nature of their work can be demanding, and sometimes hazardous. Long hours, exposure to harsh weather conditions, and potential health risks are realities that laborers often face.

Therefore, it is crucial to prioritize the well-being and safety of agricultural workers and provide them with proper training and protective equipment.

You can read on the types of agricutural practices here.


In summary, below are the importance of labor in agriculture:

  • They possess the knowledge and expertise necessary to ensure that farming activities are carried out efficiently and effectively.

  • They are involved in agricultural processes such as ploughing, planting, weeding, harvesting and storage.

  • Livestock are raised through the knowledge, experience and dedication of labor. In this regard, they rely on laborers (or even the farmers) to feed, breed, and care for animals.

  • Labor control the use of agricultural technologies, including farm machineries.

  • Being a laborer in itself is an employment opportunity, giving rise to source of income.

  • In rural areas, gricultural laborers often form communities that supports each other, thus fostering social cohesion among themselves.

  • Application of fertilizers and insecticides on farmlands are done by laborers. Also, other manual farmwork, including the use of agriculture tools are made possible by human labor.

  • Animal labor can serve as means of transportation and security within the farmland.

You can read on crop rotation here.

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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum

Peanuts are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments

Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them

Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd

Notable points in Agricultural Science

Below are characteristics of gymnosperms:

  1. Their seeds have cones that protect them.

  2. Sepals and petals aren't present in their cones.

  3. Stigma and style are absent.

  4. They do not produce fruits. Only seeds are formed.

  5. Companion cells are absent.

  6. Sporophyll form the cones.

  7. Anther and filament are absent.

  8. The ovules are not present in the ovary.

  9. Gymnosperms do not possess flowers.

  10. Please read on the anatomical differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms here

The flower is the reproductive organ in plants' sexual reproduction. In order to achieve a successful sexual propagation or reproduction in plants, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.

The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:

  1. Sepals

  2. Petals

  3. Stamen

  4. Carpel

The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.

The carpel (or pistil) is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.

Please read more on plants' sexual reproduction here

An organism will be considered a pest if it does one of the followings:

  • Attack crops and eat its seeds, roots, stem, leaves and flowers. Examples are locust and grasshoppers.

  • Cause damage to stored food, fruits or other agricultural produce. Some may even urinate or deaficate on these products. Examples are rodents, cockroaches and mice.

  • Attack and kill farm animals like goats, sheep and cattle. Examples are foxes, wild cats and snakes.

  • Act as disease vectors. A vector is an organism that carries parasite and other disease causing organisms, without being affected; but when they introduce the parasites into their host, such host becomes infected with disease. Examples of vectors are rodents and mosquitoes.

    Please read more on vectors of diseases here.

Below are the classification of crops based on their uses:

  • Oil crops

  • Vegetable crops

  • Latex crops

  • Drug and Medicinal crops

  • Beverage crops

  • Fibre crops

  • Fruit crops

  • Root and Tubers

  • Legumes

  • Spices

  • Cereals

All crops are plants but not all plants are crops. Below are some instances:

  • Weeds are considered as plants, not crops.

  • Parasitic plants are not necessarily crops. Examples of parasitic plants include mistletoe, corpse flower and striga.

  • Carnivorous or insectivorous plants are not necessarily crops. Examples are sundew, venus flytrap and pitcher plant. The image below shows a carnivorous plant (venus flytrap).

Venus flytrap - Len Academy


Meanwhile, always understand that all crops are plants, and they are grown for food, money or something beneficial.

Please read on plants versus crops here