Civic Education

Fundamental Human Rights and Characteristics of Human Rights

len Alfred Ajibola - 11th February, 2019 @ 1:07 PM

Topics in Civic Education

Consequences of dishonesty Importance of values Examination malpractice in Nigeria, causes and solutions Orderliness in civic education Importance of orderliness Examples of orderliness Cooperation in civic education What is honesty? Who is a dishonest person? Cultism: Characteristics of Cultism Cultism: Reasons why people join Cults Illiteracy: Causes of Illiteracy Responsibilities, Duties and Obligations of a Citizen What is Civic Responsibility and Who is a Citizen? Reputation: How to build a good reputation Characteristics of Democracy Cooperation - Factors that promote Cooperation Cooperation: Types of Cooperation Attributes and Benefits of Honesty Meaning and Types of Values in Civic Education Community service explained with its benefits

Academic Questions in Civic Education

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

value that belongs naturally to someone is said to be _____.

  • A. Self

  • B. Neutral

  • C. Humane

  • D. Positive

  • E. Negative

  • F. Intrinsic

A traffic offender mandated to clean the roads is said to have carried out community service.

  • A. True

  • B. False

The following are solutions to cultism except _____.

  • A. The evils and dangers of cultism should be taught from primary schools

  • B. Government should legalize the use of guns so that students can protect themselves from cultist

  • C. Laws that discourage cultism should be passed into the constitution

  • D. Government should work to increase the standard of living in the society

  • E. Government should provide amnesty to encourage cult members renounce their membership

  • F. Religious groups should evangelize and pray for known cult members

With regards to cultism in Nigeria, the pyrates and magnificent seven was formed in which university.

  • A. University of Lagos

  • B. University of Ibadan

  • C. University of Ife

  • D. University of Calabar

  • E. University of Portharcourt

  • F. Ahmadu Bello University

The following factors may contribute to illiteracy in a society except _____.

  • A. Presence of academic structures

  • B. Culture

  • C. Poverty

  • D. Dyslexia and Dysorthogràphia

  • E. Corruption

  • F. Lack of awareness

Dr. Stella Ameyo Adedavoh - Len Academy

The above image shows a gallant Nigerian, Doctor Stella Ameyo Adedavoh who sacrificed her life in the act of service, during a disease outbreak in the country. What disease outbreak was this?

  • A. Bird Flu

  • B. COVID-19

  • C. Monkey Pox

  • D. Ebola

  • E. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

  • F. Chicken Pox

Which of the following is not an obligation of a citizen?

  • A. Payment of tax

  • B. Exercising the right to vote

  • C. Service as a jury when called upon

  • D. Fighting crimes without any need of reporting it

  • E. Ready to defend the country

  • F. Engagement in community and volunteer services

A legal process through which a citizen of one country gains citizenship into another country is termed _____.

  • A. International pass

  • B. Residential pass

  • C. Nationalization

  • D. Naturalization

  • E. Green card

  • F. Internationalization

What are Human Rights?

All human beings are entitled to a fundamental, inalienable, non-discriminatory, indivisible and universal rights which is termed human rights.

These fundamental rights of humans will allow each and every one of us to live in freedom, equality, fairness, respect, peace and justice.

There is neither discrimination nor distinction in human rights. It doesn't matter if you are are white or black, a Nigerian or a Chinese, male or female, physically challenged or physically complete, rich or poor, yoruba, igbo or hausa, christian, muslim, hindu or an atheist.

The point is: 'we all share the same human rights'.

Understanding and exercising our rights as human beings is vital for our social, physical, spiritual and mental development. These rights are present in international laws and also, in a country’s constitution.

Note: No one can take your fundamental human rights away from you; although in some special cases, they may be restricted from someone; for instance if such person is considered a threat or perhaps, in the interest of national security.

The means to satisfy the basic human needs (that is, food, water, housing, access to medical facilities and education) are all covered by the fundamental human rights.

In addition, human rights protect us from the brutality and abuse of those in power.


Characteristics of Human Rights

The rights of all human beings share the following characteristics or features:

  1. Universality: They belong to all human being.

  2. Non-discriminatory: They are the same for all race and tribe, thus should be respected by all without prejudice.

  3. Indivisible: They are connected and cannot be treated in isolation.

  4. Inalienable: They cannot be taken away from any person.

  5. Interconnected: They depend on one another and are connected.


Note: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is the first international document to show the basic, civil, economic, political, social and cultural rights that all human beings must enjoy.

Ratification of the UDHR by the United Nations (UN) was done on December 10, 1948.


Human Rights

Below are some human rights. However, understand that some of these are fundamental to all human:

  1. Right to life.
    Please read on Mary Slessor, the woman who stopped the killing of twins

  2. Right to freedom, liberty and equality.
    Please read more on gender equality here

  3. Right to religion and belief.
    You can read the biblical account of creation here

  4. Right to food and shelter

  5. Right to education

  6. Right to a fair trial and to follow the due process of the law.
    Please read on the judiciary as an arm of government

  7. Right to be free from torture.
    Please read on the harmful traditional practices in Nigeria

  8. Right to innocence until proven guilty.
    You can read on the consequences of Adam and Eve's disobedience

  9. Right to belong to a country. (Right to nationality).
    Please read on the differences between citizenship and residence

  10. Right to freedom of thought and speech

  11. Right to live a life free from discrimination

  12. Right to movement

  13. Right to democracy.
    Please read more on democracy here

  14. Right to equality before the law (No one is above the law).
    You can read on the supremacy of the constitution here

  15. Right to marriage.
    Please read on the forms of marriage here

  16. Right to become a celibate

  17. Right to culture.
    Please read on the Nigerian national symbols here

  18. Right to assemble peacefully

  19. Right to social security. This encomprises of the right to education, housing, medical care, good roads, power and child care

  20. Right to work and get a fair pay

  21. Right to be free from unfair detainment

  22. Right to own anything.
    Please read on consumer right and protection here

  23. Right to vote and to be voted for.
    Please read the characteristics of democracy here

  24. Right to asylum

  25. Right to copyright

  26. Right to association

  27. Right to privacy

  28. Right to grow old

  29. Right to be happy

  30. Right to pay tax

  31. Right to relax and play.
    You can read a summary of 'the gods are not to blame' here

  32. Right to be free from slavery.
    Please read on Herbert Macaulay, the Nigerian nationalist here

  33. Right to be protected by the law.
    Please read more on the agencies of consumer protection here

  34. Right to a proper standard of living

  35. Right to enjoy all the above rights. Understand that no one can take away your fundamental human rights from you

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Amazing facts in Civic Education

Canadians are so popular for being incredibly polite. For this reason, the province of Ontario in 2009 passed the 'Apology Act'. The apology act states that:

Saying 'sorry', which can be an expression of sympathy or regret can't legally be considered an admission of guilt or fault

Notable points in Civic Education

A citizen has the following rights:

  1. You have the entire right and privileges as defined in your country’s law.

  2. No one can take away your citizenship.

  3. You can hold a passport from your country of citizenship.

  4. You can pass your citizenship to your children.

  5. You don’t have to fulfill any minimum stay to become a citizen.

  6. Provided you have the passport of your country of citizenship, you are free to travel to any country which your country has travel agreement with.

  7. You can have dual citizenship.

A legal resident in a country has the following attributes within that country:

  • They must provide their bio-metric information.

  • They can enter their country of residence on many occasions. However, when they break any of the residents’ status, they may be denied further entry into the country of residence.

  • They are able to freely live, study, work and travel within their country of residence.

  • They will still utilize their international passport (from their country of citizenship) for travels, but not their resident card or permit.

  • They can become a resident after fulfilling their stay requirement. As an instance, one may become a resident when they had lived for 10 years in a country without any issues.

  • They can only naturalize (become a citizen) after faithfully living as a resident throughout the required number of years.

  • They can lose their residential status when convicted for serious crimes.

Please read more on the rights of citizens and attributes of residents here.

Cooperation can be defined as the process of coming together, working together and helping one another to achieve a common goal

According to A.W Green

Cooperation is the continuous and common endeavor of two or more persons to perform a task or to reach a goal that is commonly cherished

According to F.E Merrill

Cooperation is a form of social interaction wherein two or more persons work together to gain a common end.

There is this saying from the chairman of Microsoft concerning cooperation; and it goes thus:

Our success has really been based on partnerships from the very beginning - Bill Gates

Read more on cooperation here

Types of Cooperation:

  • Direct cooperation
  • Indirect cooperation
  • Social cooperation
  • Religious cooperation
  • Financial cooperation
  • Community cooperation
  • Occupational cooperation

Please read the details on the types of cooperation here

All human beings are entitled to their rights (human rights); but the truth is, we still have got limitations to some of these rights of ours. Below are 4 limitations:

  1. Soldiers have the right to life but when duty calls, they must be willing to die for their nation if need be.
  2. Although human beings have the right to movement, an insane person may be deprived of this right.
  3. Right to owning a property can be taken away. For instance, if a person is convicted of owning a property through corruption, stealing or another illegal means, such person will be punished in accordance with the law. Their right to those properties will be taken away.
  4. One who uses the right to freedom of speech in bringing about chaos in a democratized society will be penalized by the court of law.

Please on the fundamental human rights here