Topics in BiologyMale Reproductive System: External and Internal Male Genitals Male accessory sex organs Food Chain, Food Web and Food Pyramid Skeleton and Type of Skeletal Materials Bones - Types of Bone Bones and Type of Bone part 2 Red Blood Cells and Hemoglobin Tropical Rainforest and Savanna with their characteristics Desert and Swamp Forest - Types of Desert, Characteristics of Deserts and Swamps Plant Nutrition and Photosynthesis - Autotrophic mode of Nutrition Amazing facts in Biology Protists - Examples and Characteristics of Protists Reptiles - Characteristics of Reptiles Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Mechanism Arteries, Layers of an Artery and Characteristics of Arterial Disorders Introduction to Biology - Basic Characteristics of Life
Academic Questions in Biology
The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.
Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the human skeleton?
Organisms that manufacture their own food through the help of sunlight or chemicals are best referred to as _____.
Organisms that begins a food chain and also manufacture their food through photosynthesis are best referred to as _____.
_____ bones make up the skull.
Chemical digestion of carbohydrate (cooked starch) begins in the _____.
Arteries are one of the vessels that conveys blood in the human body; the others been the veins and capillaries.
Think of a vessel like a pipe, but in their case, they carry blood.
Internal bleeding will occur whenever the vessels located deep within our body are broken (especially deep arteries and veins).
All artery carry blood away from the heart.
Also, Arteries carry oxygen-rich (oxygenated) blood from the heart to all the body tissues; with the exception of one; the pulmonary artery which carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.
Image Credit: Wikipedia
An artery is composed of three layers:
The outermost layer called the tunica adventitia or tunica external. It consist mainly of collagen fibres and connective tissue that anchors the arteries to other nearby tissues.
The middle layer called the tunica media. It is made up of smooth muscles and elastic fibres that supports the artery in conveying blood at high pressures.
The inner layer called the tunica intima or tunica internal. It is lined by a smooth tissue called endothelium and is made up of a fine network of connective tissues; and another layer of elastic fibres bound together by a membrane which has many pores or openings.
Note: The largest artery in the human body is called the aorta.
Problems with arteries and veins are often referred to as vascular disorders.
Vascular disorders are worsened in people with diabetes, renal failure, high blood pressure, smokers and alcoholics.
Below are some features associated with vascular disorders:
Compression: When the vessels become flat.
Occlusion: When the vessels are blocked.
Tumors and Malformations: When there are unusual growths in the vessels. A vessel may also be deformed.
Spasms: Narrowing of the blood vessels.
Traumatic: It usually occurs after an injury.
Below are some conditions that are attributed to vascular disorders:
Image Credit: Britannica
This will happen when there is an accumulation of cholesterol which eventually forms plaques in the wall of arteries.
Cardiac arrest will result from atherosclerosis in the arteries of the heart while stoke will result from those around the brain.
This is the narrowing of the arteries. It may result from atherosclerosis and can also lead to heart attack and stroke, especially when the arteries around the heart and brain are involved.
This is the major cause of stroke. It occurs when a blood clot appears inside an artery that supplies blood to the brain.
Image Credit: MedScape
This occurs when there is an inflammation of one or more arteries. They usually result from hyper-activity of the immune system; and can present some pigmentations around the affected skin.
This is synonymous to heart attack. It results when there is a sudden blood clot in one of the arteries that supplies blood to the heart.
This is a weakness in the arterial wall. This weakness may be seen as a soft, painless swelling within the wall of the artery. This may also results into the formation of blood clots within such artery.
In raynaud’s disease, the arteries around the finger regions becomes narrower. As a result, the fingers may become whitish in color.
Image Credit: Heart
Wounds around the fingers will heal slowly as a result of poor blood flow from the narrowing of the arteries.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Male Seahorses actually give birth to their young ones, NOT the female
All babies are born with blue eyes
Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains
All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain
A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁
An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages
Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.
Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2.
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here
Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere
In the Biological organization of life, it is said that cells form tissues, tissues form organs and organs form systems. There are 12 systems in the human body; these are: