Biology

Types of Arterial Disorders

Alfred Ajibola - 11th February, 2019 @ 01:16 PM

Topics in Biology

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Academic Questions in Biology

Chemical digestion of carbohydrate (cooked starch) begins in the _____.

  1. mouth
  2. oesophagus
  3. stomach
  4. small Intestine
  5. large Intestine

ANSWER is Mouth

The digestion of carbohydrate (cooked starch) begins in the mouth through an enzyme called salivary amylase (formerly called ptyalin) found in the saliva. This enzyme breaks down the starch present in carbohydrates into maltose. Maltose is a disaccharide. Please read on sugars and disaccharide here.

Note: With regards to digestion, chemical digestion is emphasized. We also have mechanical digestion which involves the grinding action of the teeth.

Biology

What are Arteries?

Arteries are one of the vessels that conveys blood in our body; the others been the veins and capillaries. (Think of a vessel like a pipe, but in their case, they carry blood). Internal bleeding will occur whenever the vessels which are located deep within our body are broken (especially deep arteries and veins). All artery carry blood away from the heart. Also, Arteries carry oxygen-rich (oxygenated) blood from the heart to all the body tissues; with the exception of one; the pulmonary artery which carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.

An artery is composed of three layers:

  • The outermost layer called the tunica adventitia. It consist mainly of collagen fibres and connective tissue that anchors the arteries to other nearby tissues.

  • The middle layer called the tunica media. It is made up of smooth muscles and elastic fibres that supports the artery in conveying blood at high pressures.

  • The inner layer called the tunica intima. It is lined by a smooth tissue called endothelium and is made up of a fine network of connective tissues plus another layer of elastic fibres bound together by a membrane which has many pores or openings.

 

Note: The largest artery in the human body is called the aorta.

 

Problems with arteries and veins are often referred to as vascular disorders. Vascular disorders are worsened in people with diabetes, renal failure, high blood pressure, smokers and alcoholics. Vascular disorders will have one of the following features:

  1. Compression: When the vessels become flat.

  2. Occlusion: When the vessels are blocked.

  3. Tumors and Malformations: When there are unusual growths in the vessels. A vessel may also be deformed.

  4. Spasms: Narrowing of the blood vessels

  5. Traumatic: It usually occurs after an injury.

 

Below are some conditions that are attributes of vascular disorder:

1. Atherosclerosis

This will happen when there is an accumulation of cholesterol which eventually forms plaques in the wall of arteries. Cardiac arrest will result from atherosclerosis in the arteries of the heart while stoke will result from those of the brain.

 

2. Arterial Stenosis

This is the narrowing of the arteries. It may result from atherosclerosis and may also lead to heart attack and stroke when the arteries around the heart and brain are involved.

 

3. Cerebrovascular thrombosis

This is the major cause of stroke. It occurs when a blood clot appears inside an artery that supplies blood to the brain.

 

4. Vasculitis (arteritis)

This occurs when there is inflammation of one or more arteries. They usually result from hyper-activity of the immune system.

 

5. Myocardial Infarction

This the synonymous to heart attack. It results when there is a sudden blood clot in one of the arteries that supplies blood to the heart.

 

6. Aneurysms

This is a weakness in the arterial wall. This weakness may be seen as a soft, painless swelling within the wall of the artery. This may also results in the formation of blood clots within such artery.

 

7. Raynaud’s disease

In raynaud’s disease, the arteries around the finger regions becomes narrower. As a result, the fingers may become whitish in color. Wounds around the fingers will heal slowly as a result of poor blood flow.



Amazing facts in Biology

An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages

Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.

Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here


NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology

The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2. 

Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here

Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere

In the Biological organization of life, it is said that cells form tissues, tissues form organs and organs form systems. There are 12 systems in the human body; these are:

  1. Cardiovascular System
  2. Digestive System
  3. Endocrine System
  4. Immune System
  5. Integumentary System
  6. Lymphatic System
  7. Muscular System
  8. Nervous System
  9. Reproductive system
  10. Respiratory System
  11. Skeletal System
  12. Urinary or Renal System

Please read on the amazing facts in Biology here

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