Biology

Arteries, Layers of an Artery and Characteristics of Arterial Disorders

len Alfred Ajibola - 11th February, 2019 @ 01:16 PM

Topics in Biology

Male Reproductive System: External and Internal Male Genitals Male accessory sex organs Food Chain, Food Web and Food Pyramid Skeleton and Type of Skeletal Materials Bones - Types of Bone Bones and Type of Bone part 2 Red Blood Cells and Hemoglobin Tropical Rainforest and Savanna with their characteristics Desert and Swamp Forest - Types of Desert, Characteristics of Deserts and Swamps Plant Nutrition and Photosynthesis - Autotrophic mode of Nutrition Amazing facts in Biology Protists - Examples and Characteristics of Protists Reptiles - Characteristics of Reptiles Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Mechanism Arteries, Layers of an Artery and Characteristics of Arterial Disorders Introduction to Biology - Basic Characteristics of Life


Academic Questions in Biology

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.

  • A. osteocytes
  • B. osteoblasts
  • C. osteoclasts
  • D. chondroblasts
  • E. chrondocytes
  • F. Osteoprogenitor cells

Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?

  • A. Ecdysis is a term associated with chitin
  • B. It is a skeletal material
  • C. It is a type of skeleton
  • D. It is present outside the organism
  • E. It does not grow when the organism grows
  • It is present in ants

Which of the following is NOT a function of the human skeleton?

  • A. Gives Shape
  • B. Provides Protection
  • C. Aids in Locomotion
  • D. Supports Movement
  • E. Assists in Inhalation and Exahalation
  • F. None of the above
  • G. All of the above

Organisms that manufacture their own food through the help of sunlight or chemicals are best referred to as _____.

  • A. autotrophs
  • B. chemosynthetic
  • C. photosynthentic
  • D. chemoautotrophs
  • E. photoautotrophs
  • F. chemoautotrophs

Organisms that begins a food chain and also manufacture their food through photosynthesis are best referred to as _____.

  • A. heterotrophs
  • B. autotrophs
  • C. homotrophs
  • D. producers
  • E. photosynthetic
  • F. chemosynthetic

_____ bones make up the skull.

  1. 10
  2. 12
  3. 15
  4. 20
  5. 22
  6. 25
  7. 30

Chemical digestion of carbohydrate (cooked starch) begins in the _____.

  1. mouth
  2. oesophagus
  3. stomach
  4. small Intestine
  5. large Intestine

What are Arteries?

Arteries are one of the vessels that conveys blood in the human body; the others been the veins and capillaries.

Think of a vessel like a pipe, but in their case, they carry blood.

Internal bleeding will occur whenever the vessels located deep within our body are broken (especially deep arteries and veins).

All artery carry blood away from the heart.

Also, Arteries carry oxygen-rich (oxygenated) blood from the heart to all the body tissues; with the exception of one; the pulmonary artery which carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.

Please read on the Red Blood Cells and Hemoglobin here


Layers of an Artery

Layers of an Artery - Len Academy

Image Credit: Wikipedia

An artery is composed of three layers:

  • The outermost layer called the tunica adventitia or tunica external. It consist mainly of collagen fibres and connective tissue that anchors the arteries to other nearby tissues.

  • The middle layer called the tunica media. It is made up of smooth muscles and elastic fibres that supports the artery in conveying blood at high pressures.

  • The inner layer called the tunica intima or tunica internal. It is lined by a smooth tissue called endothelium and is made up of a fine network of connective tissues; and another layer of elastic fibres bound together by a membrane which has many pores or openings.

 

Note: The largest artery in the human body is called the aorta.

 

Problems with arteries and veins are often referred to as vascular disorders.

Vascular disorders are worsened in people with diabetes, renal failure, high blood pressure, smokers and alcoholics.

Please read on Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Mechanism here

Characteristics of Vascular Disorders

Below are some features associated with vascular disorders:

  1. Compression: When the vessels become flat.

  2. Occlusion: When the vessels are blocked.

  3. Tumors and Malformations: When there are unusual growths in the vessels. A vessel may also be deformed.

  4. Spasms: Narrowing of the blood vessels.

  5. Traumatic: It usually occurs after an injury.

 

Causes of Arterial Disorders

Below are some conditions that are attributed to vascular disorders:

1. Atherosclerosis

Arteriosclerosis - Len Academy

Image Credit: Britannica

This will happen when there is an accumulation of cholesterol which eventually forms plaques in the wall of arteries.

Cardiac arrest will result from atherosclerosis in the arteries of the heart while stoke will result from those around the brain.

 

2. Arterial Stenosis

This is the narrowing of the arteries. It may result from atherosclerosis and can also lead to heart attack and stroke, especially when the arteries around the heart and brain are involved.

 

3. Cerebrovascular Thrombosis

This is the major cause of stroke. It occurs when a blood clot appears inside an artery that supplies blood to the brain.

Please read on the Human Brain and Uniqueness of Man here

 

4. Vasculitis (Arteritis)

Vasculitis - Len Academy

Image Credit: MedScape

This occurs when there is an inflammation of one or more arteries. They usually result from hyper-activity of the immune system; and can present some pigmentations around the affected skin.

 

5. Myocardial Infarction

This is synonymous to heart attack. It results when there is a sudden blood clot in one of the arteries that supplies blood to the heart.

 

6. Aneurysms

This is a weakness in the arterial wall. This weakness may be seen as a soft, painless swelling within the wall of the artery. This may also results into the formation of blood clots within such artery.

Please read on the Male Reproductive System here

 

7. Raynaud’s disease

In raynaud’s disease, the arteries around the finger regions becomes narrower. As a result, the fingers may become whitish in color.

Raynaud's Disease - Len Academy

Image Credit: Heart

Wounds around the fingers will heal slowly as a result of poor blood flow from the narrowing of the arteries.


THANKS FOR READING - Please Help Share!




len

Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


Amazing facts in Biology

Male Seahorses actually give birth to their young ones, NOT the female

All babies are born with blue eyes

Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains

All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain

A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁

An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages

Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.

Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here


NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology

During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.

This is the concept of anaerobic respiration

A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.

Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:

  • Terrestrial (Land)
  • Aquatic (Water)
  • Arboreal (🌲 Treetops)

You can read on Food Chain here

The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:

  • Bios: means life. 
  • Logos: means knowledge or to study.

Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life

Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:

  1. Movement
  2. Respiration
  3. Nutrition
  4. Irritability or Sensitivity
  5. Growth
  6. Excretion
  7. Reproduction
  8. Death
  9. Adaptation
  10. Competition

The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).

You can read on the introduction to Biology and the basic characteristics of life here

The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2. 

Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here

Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere

In the Biological organization of life, it is said that cells form tissues, tissues form organs and organs form systems. There are 12 systems in the human body; these are:

  1. Cardiovascular System
  2. Digestive System
  3. Endocrine System
  4. Immune System
  5. Integumentary System
  6. Lymphatic System
  7. Muscular System
  8. Nervous System
  9. Reproductive system
  10. Respiratory System
  11. Skeletal System
  12. Urinary or Renal System

Please read on the amazing facts in Biology here

CONTRIBUTE TO THIS TOPIC | ASK A QUESTION