Key Points in Academics
Academic ArticlesDefinitions of technology and their explanations - Basic Technology
Ecclesiocracy is a form of government whereby religious leaders are recognized as the first citizens of a state.
The religious leaders in ecclesiocracy do not proclaim themselves as a direct instrument of divine revelation concerning laws governing the society.
A typical example of ecclesiocracy is seen in Vatican City where the pope presides as the leader of the state. However, the pope does not claim to receive direct revelation from God concerning civil laws.
The grand Ayatollah of Iran (Ali Khamenei) and president of Sudan, Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir are also considered as instances of leaders in ecclesiocracy.
It is worthy of note to state that the laws and rules governing the land in ecclesiocracy are based on religious beliefs, thus making it somewhat related to theocracy.
One of the duties of the government is to make laws that govern the society. Without laws, some of the rich may oppress the poor. Similarly, some of the highly placed in the society may end up oppressing the weak without being brought to justice.
The absence of government in a society, country, nation, state or community is referred to as anarchy.
An instance of anarchy occurred in Somalia in 1991 after a dictator name Said Barre was overthrown. This made Somalia disintegrate into fractions with local warlords imposing their authority over their land.
Please read on the forms of government here
Below are some of the functions of government:
It is the role of the government to protect and defend the fundamental human rights of her citizens.
The government maintains law and order through the law enforcement agencies. These will include the police, customs officers and other local securities.
It is the duty of the government to generate revenue. This can be achieved through foreign trade.
It is the responsibility of the government to maintain external relations with other countries. For this reason, the president may visit other countries for business and bilateral trade purposes. Similarly, other presidents may visit your country in this regard.
The flower is the reproductive organ in plants' sexual reproduction. In order to achieve a successful sexual propagation or reproduction in plants, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.
The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:
The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.
The carpel (or pistil) is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.
Please read more on plants' sexual reproduction here
An organism will be considered a pest if it does one of the followings:
Attack crops and eat its seeds, roots, stem, leaves and flowers. Examples are locust and grasshoppers.
Cause damage to stored food, fruits or other agricultural produce. Some may even urinate or deaficate on these products. Examples are rodents, cockroaches and mice.
Attack and kill farm animals like goats, sheep and cattle. Examples are foxes, wild cats and snakes.
Act as disease vectors. A vector is an organism that carries parasite and other disease causing organisms, without being affected; but when they introduce the parasites into their host, such host becomes infected with disease. Examples of vectors are rodents and mosquitoes.
Social Studies is defined as an integrated study on the interaction of human beings with their physical and social environments.
We can think of our environment as everything that surrounds us at any point in time. For instance, the soil, air, your clothes, phone and everything surrounding you right now are all part of your environment. (That is, they make up your environment).
Physical environment describes every visible thing around us. It could be water, air, soil, clothes, phones or all other things found around us.
Social environment on the other hand describes the various social roles or positions that influence an individual or a group. It is represented in our culture, norms, values, the people and various institutions with whom we interact with. Meanwhile, understand that social media applications like facebook, twitter, instagram, youtube and the likes present a social environment where people can interact with one another regardless their geographical location around the world.
Please read on the meaning and objectives of social studies here
A unitary elasticity of supply is seen when a change in price brings about a corresponding and proportional change in the quantity of goods or services supplied.
The graph below shows a unit elasticity of supply:
Below is an instance of a unitary elasticity of supply:
If a 100% increase in the price of wheat translates into a 100% increase in the production and supply of wheat, then the supply elasticity is said to be unitary elastic and its value is equal to 1.
Unitary elasticity is always equal to 1, that is: Es = 1
The supply curve runs diagonally and will pass through the center.
Supply elasticity is defined as the rate at which an increase in price of goods translates into its increased production and availability in the market. Supply elasticity is also termed as price elasticity of supply.
Consider the statements below:
If a 100% increase in the price of rice translates into a 100% increase in the production and supply of rice, the supply elasticity is said to be unitary elastic and its value is equal to 1.
If a 100% increase in the price of rice translates into a 50% increase in the production and supply (quantity) of rice, the supply elasticity is said to be inelastic and its value will be greater than zero and less than 1. In this case, the exact value is 0.5: (value of change in the quantity of rice divided by value of change in price of rice = 50/100 = 0.5).
We have six classes of food. These are:
Fats and Oils
In humans, roughages are not classified as one of the classes of food. This is so because they aren't digested. Instead, roughages facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon); and for this reason, they can become useful in treating constipation.
Food refers to anything that is ingested by living organisms, giving them nutrients and thus enabling them to stay alive.
As an instance, 99% of a panda's diet is bamboo. In this case, bamboo is considered as food to a panda since it provides a source of nutrient and keeps it alive. This is shown in the image below:
The only process in nature that actively enriches our atmosphere with oxygen is photosynthesis. Every other process like respiration, burning and combustion takes away oxygen from it. In addition, they introduce carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) into the atmosphere.
Photosynthesis is also the only process that takes away carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) from the atmosphere.
Photosynthesis is defined as a process by which green plants manufacture food by utilizing carbon(IV)oxide and water in the presence of sunlight.
Oxygen is given off as a by-product of photosynthesis. In regards to this, it is recommended that each person plants a tree.
Earth's atmosphere is extremely important for the survival of all its inhabitants. As a student, it is important you comprehend how the above functions of the atmosphere support life. The explanations below give credence to this fact.
When one moves further away from earth, the atmosphere becomes thinner until it disappears into the outer space. There is no atmosphere in space. For this reason, astronauts will always wear a spacesuit while carrying along their oxygen gas masks and canisters when in space.
People living on very high altitudes will likely experience a reduced amount of oxygen in the atmosphere. Such people survive because their bodily organs become adapted to survive in such conditions.
On mountain everest for instance, mountain climbers will need to carry oxygen canisters because lesser amount of oxygen is present on this mountain.
Please read more on the functions of the atmosphere here
If one covers a distance of 10,000 meters in 50 seconds and another covers the same distance in 5,000 seconds, we can conclude that the first person has a greater speed because he covered the same distance at a lesser time.
Speed is defined as distance travelled per unit of time. It can also be defined as the rate of change of distance.
Speed = distance/Time
Speed is a scalar quantity since it has only magnitude. Speed does not have a direction.
In physics, motion is defined as a change in the position of an object with reference to time.
Although we sometimes sit or stand in a fixed position, that doesn’t mean motion isn’t taking place. The fact that the earth is constantly rotating implies that we are indirectly moving along with it. We can thus say that motion can be relative to some frame of reference.
In the above paragraph, the earth (constantly rotating along its axis) is our frame of reference and everything present on earth is in motion (with regard to earth as a frame of reference).
Please read on the concepts of motion and speed here
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Amazing facts for Students
Platypus (sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus) is an egg-laying, semiaquatic mammal found in eastern Australia. It has no stomach and as such, its food goes from the mouth through the esophagus and directly to their intestines.
The most common wild bird in the world is native to Africa, and it's the red-billed quelea with a population estimated to be around 1.5 billion
The logo for gmail was designed the night before it was launched
Coca Cola owns all the domain names (website names) that can be read as ahh. They include: ahh.com, ahhh.com, ahhhh.com, ahhhhh.com, ahhhhhh.com and so on..., all the way up to 62 'h's!
Yahoo is an acronym for: 'Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle'
A medium-sized cumulus cloud has a weight of about 80 adult elephants.
You can think of cumulus cloud as a detached, individual, cauliflower-shaped cloud often seen in fair weather conditions
The word pangram refers to a sentence that contains all 26 letters of the alphabet. Below is an example of a pangram:
The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog
The word Paraskevidekatriaphobia means the fear of Friday the 13th, while Triskaidekaphobia means an extreme fear of the number 13
Angry and Hungry are the only two English words that currently ends in '-gry'
Pepto Bismol-colored Lake Hillier is a pink colored lake present in Australia
Mount Everest is the highest point on earth with a height of 8,849 meters (29,032 feet). It is located between Nepal and Tibet, an autonomous region of China.
Mountain Everest is a symbol of relationship between Nepal and Tibet, and was named in the nineteenth century after George Everest, a former Surveyor General of India
Ashrita Furman holds the world record for the holder of the most world records. He had set over 600 records and currently holds more than 200 world records
As at 2023, France remains the most visited country (with about 90 million visitors), followed by Spain (83.7 million). Next is the United States of America (79.3 million)
White House in Washington has 132 rooms and 35 bathrooms while Buckingham Palace in London has 775 rooms, including 78 bathrooms
A day on planet venus is longer than a year. This is so because it takes venus 243 'earth days' to spin round its axis (rotation), but takes 225 'earth days' to go around the sun (revolution).
In geography, understand that a day is reached when the planet makes a full spin or rotation round it's axis. However, a year is reached when a planet revolves fully around the sun
Of all animals, mosquitoes hold the record of killing most humans annually. They are responsible for the deaths of 725,000 - 1,000,000 persons yearly
Pufferfish contain a toxin called tetrodotoxin. This makes them foul tasting and poisonous to predators. Tetrodotoxin is about 1,200 times more poisonous than cyanide, and there is enough toxin in one pufferfish to kill 30 adult humans. Unfortunately, there isn't any known antidote to this poison.
Interestingly, a delicacy in Japan (called fugu) is made from pufferfish. This meal is very expensive, and must be prepared by trained and licensed chefs. An improper preparation of fugu may lead to the customer's death. Sadly, such deaths are recorded annually
Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum
Wombats are the only animal with a cube-shaped poo. They can stack up these cube-shaped poo, marking their territory with it
The Four Corners is a location in the United States of Ameria where one can stand in four states simultaneously (at the same time). The states are: Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.
On the Four Corners, a person stands on the southwestern corner of Colorado, southeastern corner of Utah, northeastern corner of Arizona, and northwestern corner of New Mexico at once.
Robert Wadlow (1918–1940) remains the tallest man ever recorded in the Guinness World Records. He was an American who stood at 8 feet, 11 inches.
An abnormally enlarged pituitary gland had resulted into Robert Wadlow's giant size.
Three United States presidents; John Adams (2nd US president), Thomas Jefferson (3rd US president), and James Monroe (5th US president) died on the 4th of July.
Coincidentally, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson also died the same year, and that's 1826.
Cockroach is the fastest land animal on six legs
Like humans, all apes laugh when tickled
Antibiotics fights and kills bacteria. However, they do nothing to a virus
The longest street in the world is Yonge street in Toronto Canada. It has a length of 1,895,807.232 meters or 1,178 miles
The only English word with five consecutive vowels is 'queueing'
The dot on the top of letter ‘i’ is called a tittle
An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain
The sentence below uses every letter in the English alphabet:
The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog
Plastic and Glass can decompose, but not in our lifetimes. It takes an average time of 450 years for plastics to decompose. As for the decomposition of glasses, it takes about 4,000 years
The upper front teeth are missing in giraffes. Meanwhile, like an adult human, a fully grown giraffe has 32 teeth but most are positioned at the back of their mouth
The reason the Leaning Tower of Pisa is tilted is the same reason it's still standing
All insects have six legs. However, dragonfly has six legs but can't walk
Slugs have four noses
Most insects hatch from egg but aphids give birth to their young alive
The chin is defined as the protruding part of the face below the mouth, formed by the apex of the lower lip. It is shown below:
Interestingly, humans are the only animals with chin
With regards to size, the sun is so big when compared to earth. In fact, a million earth would fit inside of it
Bats aren't birds, rather, they are mammals. Infact, they are the second largest order of mammals after rodents. We have over 1,400 species of bat. Globally, they make up about 20% of all classified mammal species
99% of a panda's diet is bamboo. They may eat fish or other small animals occasionally