Key Points in Academics
Academic ArticlesTypes of capital market: Primary market and secondary market - Economics
Planets can be categorized based on their composition. These include:
1. Terrestrial or Rocky Planets: They are mercury, venus, earth and mars. They are called terrestrial or rocky planets for the following reasons:
They have a rocky and compact surface.
They have no rings around them.
They have a few natural satellites.
They rotate slowly around their axis.
2. Gas or Jovian Planets: They include jupiter, saturn, uranus and neptune. They have the following features:
They are called jovian planets because they are bigger in size when compared to earth.
They are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium gas, hence the name 'gas planets' or 'gas giants'.
They rotate rapidly.
They have many satellites.
They have rings around them.
The following rules are required for a body to become classified (or regarded) as a planet:
It must orbit the sun.
It does not orbit another planet. This means that it must not be a satellite.
It must have sufficient mass which accounts for its self-gravity.
It must assume a nearly round shape.
The Standard International (SI) unit for density is kilogram per cubic metre (Kg/m3).
The table below shows various substances with their densities:
Air (1atm and 20oC)
Water (Fresh Water)
Force can be balanced or unbalanced.
When forces from different directions act on an object and consequently bring about the object's motion, then such forces are unbalanced.
Conversely, if theses forces bring about zero motion (static position or no movement) on the object of reference, then it's a balanced force.
An apple hanging on a tree (without any form of movement) has a balanced force.
An apple falling from a tree has an unbalanced force.
Below are characteristics of gymnosperms:
Their seeds have cones that protect them.
Sepals and petals aren't present in their cones.
Stigma and style are absent.
They do not produce fruits. Only seeds are formed.
Companion cells are absent.
Sporophyll form the cones.
Anther and filament are absent.
The ovules are not present in the ovary.
Gymnosperms do not possess flowers.
Below are the physical properties of metals:
They exist in solid state.
The have high densities.
They are good conductors of heat and electricity.
The have the ability to be polished, to glow, sparkle and reflect light.
They can be bent, flattened and made into sheets called foils.
They can be drawn into wires.
Iron undergoes magnetism while most metals are poorly magnetized.
They typical have high melting point.
They generally have high boiling point.
With the exception of lithium, sodium and potassium, most metals are generally hard.
They have the ability to make sound when in contact with other objects or metals.
John Dalton is an English chemist who brought clarity into the composition of matter and the basis for their chemical reactions.
Below are Dalton's Atomic Theory:
All matter consists of tiny indivisible particles called atoms.
Atoms of the same element are identical to each other in every aspect because they have the same shape and mass, while atoms of different elements are different in all respect.
Atoms are indestructible and can neither be created nor destroyed.
Atoms of different elements can combine with each other in simple whole number ratios to form compounds.
Atoms of the same element share similar physical and chemical properties. They can also combine in more than one ratio to form two or more compounds.
Meanwhile, understand that the above theories of John Dalton had been modified.
All human beings are entitled to a fundamental, inalienable, non-discriminatory, indivisible and universal rights which is termed human rights.
These fundamental rights of humans will allow each and every one of us to live in freedom, equality, fairness, respect, peace and justice.
There is neither discrimination nor distinction in human rights. It doesn't matter if you are are white or black, a Nigerian or a Chinese, male or female, physically challenged or physically complete, rich or poor, yoruba, igbo or hausa, christian, muslim, hindu or an atheist.
The point is: 'we all share the same human rights'.
Below are some of our rights as humans:
Right to life
Right to freedom, liberty and equality
Right to religion and belief
Right to food and shelter
Right to education
Right to a fair trial and to follow the due process of the law
Right to be free from torture
Right to innocence until proven guilty
Right to belong to a country. (Right to nationality)
Right to freedom of thought and speech
Right to live a life free from discrimination
Right to movement
Right to democracy
The parable of the prodigal son as narrated by Jesus himself is one that shows God's incomprehensible mercy and love. This parable is present in the gospel of Luke 15: 11-32.
Jesus began by saying:
There was once a man who had two sons. The younger one said to him, 'Father, give me my share of the property now'. So the man divided his properties between his two sons.
Luke 15: 11-12
From the above passage, it is quite clear that the younger brother had lost interest in the family's affairs. He must have pondered in his heart the sweetness of complete independence on a life of financial abundance.
To actualize his thoughts, he had the effrontery to go to his father to request for his inheritance even though his father is fully alive and active.
Adam and Eve disobeyed God while in the Garden of Eden. Below are the consequences of Adam and Eve's disobedience:
All God's creature became guilty of original sin.
Human perfection was lost.
God's judgement was pronounced on the snake, woman and man.
Chaos and disorderliness came upon earth.
Suffering, pain and death was introduced into the world.
The first prophesy was made.
Clothing was made.
Paradise was temporarily lost.
Their disobedience brought about the relevation of Jesus Christ.
Ecclesiocracy is a form of government whereby religious leaders are recognized as the first citizens of a state.
The religious leaders in ecclesiocracy do not proclaim themselves as a direct instrument of divine revelation concerning laws governing the society.
A typical example of ecclesiocracy is seen in Vatican City where the pope presides as the leader of the state. However, the pope does not claim to receive direct revelation from God concerning civil laws.
The grand Ayatollah of Iran (Ali Khamenei) and president of Sudan, Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir are also considered as instances of leaders in ecclesiocracy.
It is worthy of note to state that the laws and rules governing the land in ecclesiocracy are based on religious beliefs, thus making it somewhat related to theocracy.
One of the duties of the government is to make laws that govern the society. Without laws, some of the rich may oppress the poor. Similarly, some of the highly placed in the society may end up oppressing the weak without being brought to justice.
The absence of government in a society, country, nation, state or community is referred to as anarchy.
An instance of anarchy occurred in Somalia in 1991 after a dictator name Said Barre was overthrown. This made Somalia disintegrate into fractions with local warlords imposing their authority over their land.
Below are some of the functions of government:
It is the role of the government to protect and defend the fundamental human rights of her citizens.
The government maintains law and order through the law enforcement agencies. These will include the police, customs officers and other local securities.
It is the duty of the government to generate revenue. This can be achieved through foreign trade.
It is the responsibility of the government to maintain external relations with other countries. For this reason, the president may visit other countries for business and bilateral trade purposes. Similarly, other presidents may visit your country in this regard.
The flower is the reproductive organ in plants' sexual reproduction. In order to achieve a successful sexual propagation or reproduction in plants, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.
The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:
The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.
The carpel (or pistil) is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.
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Amazing facts for Students
The Statue of Unity in Gujarat, India, is the tallest statue in the world. It stands at 182 meters (579 feet)
According to research, the problem isn't the amount of food produced; the actual problem is the distribution of these foods. In this regard, we actually produce enough food to feed everyone on earth, but their distribution remains an underlying problem
1,000 computers are used to retrieve the answers to your Google search (query) in 0.2 seconds
Malala Yousafzai is a Pakistani education activist, and she is the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize award at age 17 in 2014, for her work as a child rights activist and champion of girls’ right to education
Russia is home to the largest area of forest in our world with a land mass of 815 million hectares
Salvator Mundi by Leonardo da Vinci is the most expensive painting in the world. It is valued at 450.3 Million Dollars.
This painting depict Jesus Christ with his right hand raised in blessing, and his left hand holding an orb
According to scientific research, if the first tear drop comes from the right eye, it’s tears of joy. If it comes from the left eye, then it is as a result of pain
Marie Curie was the first person ever to win two Nobel prizes. She won her first Nobel price for physics in 1903, and the second for chemistry in 1911 for her work on radioactivity.
2.7 Billion Dollars was realized from the movie - Avengers: Endgame. This makes it the top-grossing film of all time
The world’s oldest known work of art was discovered by scientists in 2019 on an Indonesian island named Sulawesi. This work of art was created 44,000 years ago, and it shows paintings of three Sulawesi pigs
The shortest war ever lasted for just 38 minutes. This is the Anglo-Zanzibar War in 1896
The first hand-held mobile phone call was made in New York City on April 3rd, 1973
Lake Baikal is the deepest freshwater lake in the world. It is located in Siberia, and has a depth of 5,315 feet (1,620 meters)
River Nile is the world's longest river, reaching a length of 6,853km. It runs through the borders of 11 African countries. These are Egypt, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi and Eritrea
The deepest place on Earth is the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean. It has a dept of 11,034 meters (or 36,201 feet)
68% of households in New Zealand have a pet, and this is more than any other nation or country in the world
According to the Global Bicycle Index, Utrecht in Netherlands is the most bike-friendly city in the world
According to the Population Reference Bureau, the number of people alive today represents about 7% of the total number of humans who have ever lived.
Japan has recorded the most earthquakes and is thereby considered as the world's most earthquake-prone country
174 world leaders signed the Paris Agreement on Earth Day in 2016 at the United Nations (UN) headquarters in New York. This agreement presents the largest number of countries ever to come together to sign anything on a single day. The agreement aims to combat climate change, accelerate and intensify the actions and investments needed to strengthen the global climate effort
Dentistry is the oldest profession in the world. This is considered true because a research conducted by the University of Bologna, Italy on a 14,000-year-old skull found that one rotten tooth in the jaw had been deliberately scoured and scraped with a dental tool
Giant squid lives deep in the ocean and they have the largest eyes in the world
Scrunched and strengthed are the longest one-syllable words in the English language
The hottest temperature ever recorded occurred in Furnace Creek Ranch, Death Valley, California, USA, at 56.7oC or (134oF) on July 10, 1913
The planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune have no solid surfaces, but are rather made up of gases. For this reason, humans can never stand on them
Burg Khalifa is the tallest building in the world (as at 2023). It is situated in Dubai and stands at over 2,700 feet
The longest word in English language with only one vowel is 'strengths'
United States of America is comprised of fifty states and Washington D.C.
The letter 'q' is not present in any of the American states
Scientific research has it that the human nose can distinguish more than a trillion different odors
The movements of the fingers are controlled by muscles of the palms and forehands
Tigers have striped fur. So also is their skin
Platypus (sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus) is an egg-laying, semiaquatic mammal found in eastern Australia. It has no stomach and as such, its food goes from the mouth through the esophagus and directly to their intestines.
The most common wild bird in the world is native to Africa, and it's the red-billed quelea with a population estimated to be around 1.5 billion
The logo for gmail was designed the night before it was launched
Coca Cola owns all the domain names (website names) that can be read as ahh. They include: ahh.com, ahhh.com, ahhhh.com, ahhhhh.com, ahhhhhh.com and so on..., all the way up to 62 'h's!
Yahoo is an acronym for: 'Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle'
A medium-sized cumulus cloud has a weight of about 80 adult elephants.
You can think of cumulus cloud as a detached, individual, cauliflower-shaped cloud often seen in fair weather conditions
The word pangram refers to a sentence that contains all 26 letters of the alphabet. Below is an example of a pangram:
The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog
The word Paraskevidekatriaphobia means the fear of Friday the 13th, while Triskaidekaphobia means an extreme fear of the number 13
Angry and Hungry are the only two English words that currently ends in '-gry'