Chemistry

Introduction to Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons

len Alfred Ajibola - Wed, 13th March, 2019 @ 15:13: PM

Topics in Chemistry

Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Compounds in Chemistry: Characteristics of Compounds Types of Mixture: Homogenous and Heterogeneous Mixtures Mixtures: Characteristics of Mixtures Physical Properties of Matter explained with Examples Chemical Properties of Matter explained with Examples Differences between Physical and Chemical Change Ionic Theory and Electrolysis Physical and Chemical Properties of Acids States of Matter: Characteristics of Solids Liquid State of Matter: Characteristics of Liquids Gaseous State of Matter: Characteristics of Gases Molar Mass, Worked Examples and Differences with Molecular Mass Elements: Characteristics of Elements Salts and Types of Salt in Chemistry Mixtures and Separation of Mixtures Mixtures and Separation of Mixtures - part 2 Mixtures and Separation of Mixtures - part 3


Academic Questions in Chemistry

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

The Separating Funnel is a technique used in the separation of mixtures. Another name for Separating Funnel is the _____ Funnel.

  • A. Partition
  • B. Separatory
  • C. Division
  • D. Liquid
  • E. Half
  • F. Dividing

2NH4+(aq) + Ag+(aq) -> 2H4AgN

The equation above represents _____ acid.

  • A. Svante Arrhenius'

  • B. Brønsted–Lowry's

  • C. Gilbert Lewis'

  • D. Avogadro's

  • E. Sir Isaac Newton's

  • F. Albert Einstein's

According to Brønsted Thomas Martin Lowry, an acid is defined as _____.

  • A. Any substance that produces hydrogen ion (H+) when dissolved in water

  • B. A substance that accepts electron pair in a chemical reaction

  • C. A substance that gives out hydronium ion (H3O+) when dissolved in water

  • D. A substance that donates a proton in a chemical reaction

  • E. A substance that reacts with a base to form salt and water

  • F. A substance whose hydrogen ions  (H+) are displaced after a reaction with metals higher in the activity, reactivity or electrochemical series

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of chemical change?

  • A. A new thing is formed
  • B. It cannot be easily separated into it's constituents elements
  • C. A new chemical formula accompanies whatever is formed
  • D. The burning of candle is an example of a chemical change
  • E. Blood is an example of a chemical change
  • F. Iron rust is an example of a chemical change

Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning a physical change _____.

  • A. Substances formed in a physical change have a unique chemical formula and IUPAC name
  • B. It's a change that is easily reversible
  • C. It's a change that can be separated via an appropriate separation technique
  • D. No new substance is formed
  • E. A mixture of salt and water is a physical change
  • F. Physical change can result to a change in color and shapes of substances

The following substances will sublime EXCEPT _____.

  • A. Sodium Cryolite
  • B. Solid Carbon(IV)oxide
  • C. Arsenic
  • D. Sulphur
  • E. Iodine Crystals
  • F. Naphthalene

Which of the following is a state of matter?

  • A. Ions
  • B. Plasma
  • C. Compounds
  • D. Molecules
  • E. Atoms
  • F. None of the above

The ideal way of separating a mixture of blood is through _____.

  • A. Chromatography
  • B. Fractional Distillation
  • C. Centrifugation
  • D. Filtration
  • E. Separating Funnel
  • F. Fractional Crystallization

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What is Organic Chemistry?

Organic chemistry is simply the study of carbon and it's compounds.

Carbon is the focus of organic chemistry because it has a wide chemical diversity in the sense that it can combine with other carbon atoms to form a long chain of carbon molecule.

The ability and process whereby carbon can form a long chain of itself is called catenation.

Please read on Carbohydrates and Sugars here

Carbon also possess the following chemical diversity:

  • It forms strong covalent bond with other carbon atoms.
  • Bond fairly well with atoms of other elements.
  • Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds and this gives it a great flexibility in bonding.

The above chemical versatility of forming new compounds and molecules is demonstrated only by carbon; thus, an entire field of chemistry is devoted to the study of the compounds of just carbon.

Note: Compounds containing carbonate ions (CO32-) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-), including carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) and carbon(II)oxide (CO) are not considered as part of organic chemistry.

Please read on Physical Change, Chemical Change, Elements, Compounds and Mixtures here

In organic chemistry, the simplest form organic compounds are the hydrocarbons.

 

What are Hydrocarbons?

As the name suggests, hydrocarbons are compounds composed of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) atoms only.

Please read on Dalton's Atomic Theory and its Modifications here

Hydrocarbons are the main constituents of petroleum and natural gas. The products from petroleum (when separated via fractional distillation) serves as fuel and lubricants. They also provide raw materials for the production of plastics, rubbers and solvents.

Please read on Separation of Petroleum (Crude oil) via Fractional Distillation here

According to some chemists, hydrocarbons can be classified as either Aliphatic or Aromatic. More recently, both classifications of hydrocarbon has been based on their structure rather than their origin.

Aliphatic hydrocarbons are put into three main groups according to the types of bonds they are made up of. These group are:

  1. Alkanes
  2. Alkenes
  3. Alkynes

Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes - Len Academy

It's important to note the followings:

  • Alkanes have only single bonds in their structures.
  • Alkenes always have a carbon-carbon double bond present in their structure.
  • Alkynes always have a carbon-carbon triple bond present in their structure.

Please read on Molecular Mass and Molar Mass here


Aromatic hydrocarbons are classified into:

  1. Arenes: They contain benzene ring as a structural unit.
  2. Below is the structure of a benzene ring.

    Benzene Ring - Len Academy


  3. Nonbenzenoid aromatic hydrocarbons: They possess special stability but lack a benzene ring as a structural unit.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Chemistry

The only letters that failed to appear on the periodic table are letters:

J     &     Q

Gold and copper are the only two non-silvery colored metals.

Please read some interesting facts about gold here

Copper is the only metal that is naturally antibacterial. This is why you would see some children utilize 'copper' water bottles in schools

Water actually freezes faster when it’s warm than when it’s cold

Most element in their pure state exists physically in different forms. For instance, pure carbon can exist as both diamond and graphite. This phenomenon is called allotropy.

Please read on modification of Dalton's atomic theory here.

If you pour a handful of salt into a full glass of water, the water level will go down rather than overflowing the glass.

Similarly, if you mix half liter of water and half litre of alcohol, the total volume of the liquid will be les than one litre


NOTABLE POINTS IN Chemistry