Topics in ChemistryLe Chatelier's Principle: Changes in Concentration and Pressure explained in Dynamic Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium: Dynamic Equilibrium in Chemistry Static and Dynamic Equilibrium explained with their Differences Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Compounds in Chemistry: Characteristics of Compounds Types of Mixture: Homogenous and Heterogeneous Mixtures Mixtures: Characteristics of Mixtures Physical Properties of Matter explained with Examples Chemical Properties of Matter explained with Examples Differences between Physical and Chemical Change Ionic Theory and Electrolysis Physical and Chemical Properties of Acids States of Matter: Characteristics of Solids Liquid State of Matter: Characteristics of Liquids Gaseous State of Matter: Characteristics of Gases Molar Mass, Worked Examples and Differences with Molecular Mass Elements: Characteristics of Elements Salts and Types of Salt in Chemistry
Academic Questions in Chemistry
The Separating Funnel is a technique used in the separation of mixtures. Another name for Separating Funnel is the _____ Funnel.
2NH4+(aq) + Ag+(aq) -> 2H4AgN
The equation above represents _____ acid.
A. Svante Arrhenius'
C. Gilbert Lewis'
E. Sir Isaac Newton's
F. Albert Einstein's
According to Brønsted Thomas Martin Lowry, an acid is defined as _____.
A. Any substance that produces hydrogen ion (H+) when dissolved in water
B. A substance that accepts electron pair in a chemical reaction
C. A substance that gives out hydronium ion (H3O+) when dissolved in water
D. A substance that donates a proton in a chemical reaction
E. A substance that reacts with a base to form salt and water
F. A substance whose hydrogen ions (H+) are displaced after a reaction with metals higher in the activity, reactivity or electrochemical series
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of chemical change?
Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning a physical change _____.
The following substances will sublime EXCEPT _____.
Which of the following is a state of matter?
The ideal way of separating a mixture of blood is through _____.
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They have sour taste. (Acid in Latin means sour).
They will turn a blue litmus paper to red.
On a pH scale, they have a value less than 7 (<7). The pH scale is used to measure the degree of acidity or alkalinity substances. It's values ranges from 0-14.
They will change the color of methyl orange from orange/yellow to pink.
They will change color of phenolphthalein from pink to colourless.
They are corrosive. A corrosive substance can burn the human skin.
Aqueous form of acids can conduct electricity.
1. Neutralization Reaction: This is a reaction in which an acid reacts with a base to form salt and water only.
The equations below shows neutralization reaction between an acid and a base:
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) -> NaCl(s) + H2O(l)
HNO3(aq) + NaOH(aq) -> NaNO3(s) + H2O(l)
Note: Normal salt is a type of salt formed from a Neutralization reaction.
NaCl and NaNO3 are Normal salts formed from the above reaction.
2. Reaction with Metals: When an acid reacts with metals higher than hydrogen in the activity or electrochemical series, hydrogen gas will be evolved or discharged.
Below is a table that shows the Electrochemical Series or Activity Series or Reactivity Series of elements:
Image Credit: Redefining Knowledge
The reactions below shows the displacement of hydrogen gas from an acid during its reaction with metals higher than hydrogen in the electrochemical series.
Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) -> ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)
2Al(s) + 6HCl(aq) -> 2AlCl3(aq) + 3H2(g)
Notice that Zinc (Zn) and Aluminium (Al) are higher than hydrogen (H) in the electrochemical series, hence displacing it from the acid "HCl".
3. Reaction with Carbonates: When an acids reacts with carbonates, salt and water is produced as carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) is given off.
The equation below shows the reaction between acids and carbonates:
Na2CO3(s) + H2SO4(aq) -> Na2SO4(s) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
CaCO3(s) + H2SO4(aq) -> CaSO4(s) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
4. Reaction with Bicarbonates: It is similar to the reaction with carbonates in the sense that salt, water and carbon(IV)oxide are produced respectively. This is shown in the equations below:
KHCO3(s) + HCl(aq) -> KCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
NaHCO3(s) + HCl(aq) -> NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
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Amazing facts in Chemistry
The only letters that failed to appear on the periodic table are letters:
Gold and copper are the only two non-silvery colored metals.
Copper is the only metal that is naturally antibacterial. This is why you would see some children utilize 'copper' water bottles in schools
Water actually freezes faster when it’s warm than when it’s cold
Most element in their pure state exists physically in different forms. For instance, pure carbon can exist as both diamond and graphite. This phenomenon is called allotropy.
If you pour a handful of salt into a full glass of water, the water level will go down rather than overflowing the glass.
Similarly, if you mix half liter of water and half litre of alcohol, the total volume of the liquid will be les than one litre
NOTABLE POINTS IN Chemistry
Below are some facts about gold
It is the only metal that has a gold (golden) color.
Gold is present inside the earth crust in all the seven continents.
Pure gold is soft and very stretchable (It can even be stretched into threads).
The Latin name of Gold is aurum which means 'shining dawn'. For this reason, its chemical symbol is 'Au'.
Gold is a very good conductor of electricity. This is why it’s sometimes used in making USB and audio cables.
Gold is non toxic and can be eaten with food. It is sometimes added to desserts in some expensive restaurants.
The term Gold originated from an ancient English word 'geolu' which means yellow.
24karat gold is the purest gold element.
An acid is a substance that produces Hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water (or when in the form of an aqueous solution).
Svante Arrhenius definition of Acid
An acid is a substance that donates a proton in a chemical reaction.
Brønsted Thomas Martin Lowry definition of Acid
An acid is a substance that accept an electron pair in a chemical reaction.
Gilbert Newton Lewis definition of Acid
Finally, Acids can also be also defined as substances that gives out hydronium ion (H3O+) when dissolved in water.
In summary, all acids will always contain the positive H+ (cation) and an anionic group in their formula. For instance, the acid HCl (Hydrogen Chloride) contains H+ as cation and Cl- as its anion.