Agricultural Science

Agricultural pest and Crops attacked

len Alfred Ajibola - Fri, 24th May, 2019 @ 11:43

Topics in Agricultural Science

Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural Machines and their Uses Soil Erosion: Causes of Soil Erosion Ways to prevent Soil Erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Third Term Len Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term Len Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term, part 2 Definitions and Meanings of Agricutural terms (P - Q) Agricultural Terms: Definition and Meanings of Agricultural Terms (P and Q), part 2 Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term, Part 2 Roles of Government in Agriculture


Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Cordage is made from _____ crop.

  • A. Food

  • B. Fibre

  • C. Ornamental

  • D. Oil

  • E. Cash

  • F. Vegetables and Spice

_____ is defined as the solid and arable part of the earth where agricultural activities are be carried out.

  • A. Soil

  • B. Farmland

  • C. Agricultural land

  • D. Biosphere

  • E. Open land

  • F. Planting and grazing land

Gymnosperms and angiosperms are seed bearing plants under the division spermatophyta?

  • A. True

  • B. False

Which of the following is false concerning gymnosperms?

  • A. Cones are present

  • B. Sepals are present

  • C. Petals are absent

  • D. Only seeds are produced

  • E. Sporophyll form the cones

  • F. In seed formation, the ovules aren't present in the ovary

Which of the following statement is incorrect concerning seeds?

  • A. The ovary develops into the seed after fertilization

  • B. The embryo in the seed develops into a young plant

  • C. The seed's endosperm serve as a source of food reserve for the developing embryo

  • D. A seed has its own genotype

  • E. Seeds are products of sexual reproduction

  • F. Apomictic seeds aren't produced sexually and the hawkseed is an example

The _____ is the reproductive organ in plant's sexual reproduction.

  • A. Pollen grain

  • B. Ova

  • C. Sperm

  • D. Flower

  • E. Fruit

  • F. Seed

In flowering plants, fertilization occurs when the _____ comes into contact with the ova (as genetic materials are eventually exchanged).

  • A. Sperm

  • B. Endosperm

  • C. Exosperm

  • D. Stigma

  • E. Ovule

  • F. Pollen grain

The fusion of sperm and ova in animals leads to the formation of _____.

  • A. Foetus

  • B. Embryo

  • C. Ovary

  • D. Neonate

  • E. Zygote

  • F. Egg

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Pests in Agriculture:

In agriculture, any organism capable of causing damage to crop plant is termed a pest. To understand the differences between a crop and a plant, please read on Plants versus Crops here.

The important pest of crop plants are generally put into 6 groups. These are:

  1. Insects
  2. Birds
  3. Monkeys
  4. Rodent
  5. Man
  6. Nematodes

Below is a table showing some insect pests, the crops they attack, the nature of damage or their economic importance and their preventive and control measures:

Pests
Crops attacked
Damages caused/Economic importance
Prevention and control

Aphids

Soya-beans, Groundnuts, Cowpea and Legumes

i. Stunted growth in plants

ii. Galls, holes and spots on the plant's leave

i. Use of insecticides

ii. Uproot the infected plants

Army worm

Maize, barley and other cereals

i. Rate of photosynthesis is reduced

ii. The larva eats up the leave and stem

iii. Reduced plant growth and yield

i. Use of insecticides

ii. Hand picking

Bean Beetle

Bean seeds

i. They bore holes into bean seeds

ii. They reduce the quality of stored beans

iii. Reduce farmers income

i. Proper storage of beans

ii. Early harvesting

iii. Fumigating stores with lindane dust or phostoxin

Birds

Rice, Maize, Sorghum, Millet

i. They feed on grains in the field

ii. They reduce the quality of produce

iii. They reduce the farmer’s income

i. Early harvesting

ii. Use of scare crows

iii. Early harvesting

Cassava Mealy-bugs

Cassava and other tubers like yam

i. They twist the plant’s stem

ii. Reduced rate of  photosynthesis

iii. Reduced amount crop produce

i. Use of insecticides

ii. Use resistant varieties

iii. Early planting

Capsids / Cocoa mirids Cocoa

i. They transmit fungal diseases

ii. The inject toxic saliva into plants

iii. They cause staunted growth and reduce crop yield

i. Practice regular weeding

ii. Use of insecticides, e.g gammalin 20

Cotton Bollworm

Cotton

i. The larva feed on cotton seeds

ii. They destroy the cotton lint

iii. Premature fall of cotton boll

i. Burn all debris of the cotton plant after harvesting

ii. Use of insecticides

Cotton strainer

Cotton

i.. They pierce and suck plant sap

ii. They cause distortion in leaves

iii. They produce toxic saliva

iv. They can transmit disease

i. Use of insecticides

ii. Hand picking

Green Spidermite

Cassava, yam and cocoyam

i.. Reduce the rate of photosynthesis

ii. They feed on plant’s leaf

iii. They reduce crop produce

i. Use of insecticides

ii. Biological control

Leaf Beetle

Legumes; e.g Cowpea, soya-beans and Vegetables; e.g pepper and  okra

i.. They eat up plant’s leaf

ii. They reduce the yield of crop

iii. Reduced rate of photosynthesis

i. Plant seeds with resistant varieties

ii. Spray with insecticides

Leaf rollers

Vegetables; e.g Tomatoes, pepper, okra

i. Rolling and twisting of plant’s leaf

ii. Reduced rate of photosynthesis

iii. They reduced crop yield

Use of insecticides like vetox 85

Monkeys

Banana, cocoa, orange, mango

i. They eat up the fruits

ii. They reduce the quality of fruits

iii. The cause losses to the farmer

i. Shooting monkeys with guns

ii. Use of traps

Pod borer

Groundnut, cowpea and soya-beans

i. The larva make holes into pods

ii. They eat up plant’s seed

iii. They cause diseases to plants

iv. Reduced yield of crops

i. Practice crop rotation

ii. Practice early harvesting

iii. Spray with insecticides

stem borers

Cereals like rice, maize, corn and millet

i. Their larva bore holes into stems

ii. They eat up plant’s tissues

iii. Reduced plant growth

iv. Reduce crop produce

i. Use of insecticides like gammalin 20

ii. Practice early planting

iii. Practice crop rotation

Rodents; e.g rats, bush rabbit and squirrels

Fruits, cassava, rice, yam

i. They feed on crops

ii. They destroy the whole plant

iii. They increase the cost of production

iv. Reduced plant produce

i. Fencing farmland with wires and nets

ii. Use of traps

iii. Use poison baits

Thrips

Vegetables; e.g tomato, okra, onion

i. They cause browning of leaves

ii. They cause the wilting of plants

iii. They reduce crop yield

i. Use of insecticides

Variegated grasshopper

Tubers; e.g yam and cassava

i. The larva and adult eat up the leaves and stem of plants

ii. Reduced rate of photosynthesis

Reduced plant growth and crop yield

i. Spray with insecticides e.g Adrex 40

ii. Hand picking

Yam beetles

Yam

i. They bore holes into yam tubers

ii. Reduce the yield of yams

iii. They reduce the quality and market value of crop

i. Practice crop rotation

ii. Spray Adrin dust on yams before planting

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

Peanuts are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments

Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them

Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd


NOTABLE POINTS IN Agricultural Science

Below are some common types of erosion:

  • Water Erosion: It is caused by rainfall and flooding on the topsoil. As a result of water erosion, some layers of the topsoil are lost.

  • Sheet Erosion: When an entire surface of land becomes eroded at a uniform (equal) level, such is referred to as sheet erosion. It is shown below:
    Sheet Erosion - Len Academy

  • Wind Erosion: It results from the actions of wind on a bare land. Wind erosion is often seen in deserts. Overgrazing and lack of vegetation cover will also enhance wind erosion on topsoil.

Please read more on types of soil erosion here.

Soil erosion is defined as a process through which the topsoil is removed or moved from one point to another by agents like wind, water, man and animals.

Soil erosion occurs naturally (wind and water) and may also be facilitated by living organisms.

Soil erosion is more likely to occur on a sloppy land and land with no vegetation cover. When this occurs, the nutrient rich layer of the topsoil is washed away; and this ultimately results in fewer plants growing on such eroded soil.

Please read more on soil erosion here

There are about 630 different kinds of carnivorous plants.

Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients by consuming small animals, especially insects.

Carnivorous plants are also referred to as insectivorous plants.

Examples of carnivorous plants include sundew and Venus flytrap.

Please read more on carnivorous plants here