Basic Science

Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause

len Alfred Ajibola - Wed, 05th June, 2019 @ 12:16 PM

Topics in Basic Science

Importance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs What is immunization? How immunization works and the processes involved Food: What is food?


Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.

  • A. True

  • B. False

With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.

  • A. International bodies

  • B. Antilators

  • C. Antibodies

  • D. Antigens

  • E. Antibiotics

  • F. Antidotes

Disease causing organisms are termed _____.

  • A. Pests

  • B. Pathogens

  • C. Vectors

  • D. Insects

  • E. Disease carriers

  • F. All the above options are correct

____ is formed from a reaction utilizing oxygen and glucose in the mitochondria of cells.

  • A. Galactose

  • B. Fructose

  • C. Sucrose

  • D. AMP

  • E. ADP

  • F. ATP

Which of the following statement is false concerning carbohydrates?

  • A. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only

  • B. Carbon has the highest ratio of the constituent elements of carbohydrates

  • C. All carbohydrates are sugars

  • D. Fructose is a carbohydrate

  • E. Natural milk contains lactose and it's a carbohydrate

  • F. Fatty foods contains high calories of energy when compared to the same quantity of carbohydrate foods

Which of the following is a class of food?

  • A. Water

  • B. Fibre

  • C. Roughages

  • D. Latex

  • E. Tanins

  • F. Wax

Brachiation is a specialized form of movement exhibited by _____.

  • A. Human beings

  • B. Babbons

  • C. Chameleons

  • D. Toads

  • E. Millipedes

  • F. Birds

_____ is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs.

  • A. Pedalism

  • B. Duo Pedalism

  • C. Double Pedalism

  • D. Dual Pedalism

  • E. Bipedalism

  • F. Copedalism


What are Vectors?

A vector is defined as any animal that transmits disease causing organisms (pathogens or germs) into a host. Recall that the term disease means a deviation from the normal physiological and anatomical state of an organism which is usually associated with some specific signs and symptoms

Ideally, a vector should be an animal; and organism(s) that cause diseases must reside within or on such animals. It is important to point out this fact because we have other organisms that aren't animals, yet are still capable of transmitting diseases.

Please read on the basic characteristics of life here.


Note: A host is an organism on which another organism (called a parasite) lives and feed on. They usually suffer in a parasitic relationship.

You can read on micro-organisms causing diseases here.


These disease causing organisms (pathogen or germs) when inside the vector causes no harm to it. However, as soon as the vector introduces the pathogen into the host, it affects the physiological system of the host; and as a result brings about diseases in the infected host.

As an instance, the pathogen for river blindness in humans is Onchocerca volvolus. This pathogen initially lived inside the blackfly which happens to be its vector. Onchocerca volvolus (within the blackfly) causes no harm to it, but as soon as the blackfly introduces it into its host (humans in this case), it may cause river blindness to its host.

Please read on immunization here.

 

Diseases caused by vectors and their symptoms

The table below shows some vectors, the micro organism they carry and the disease they transmit to humans.


Disease

Vector

Disease causing organism (carried by vector)

Symptoms

Malaria

Female anopheles mosquito

Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax (protozoan)

High fever, shivering and sweating

Yellow Fever

Aedes mosquito

Flavivirus fibricus

High fever, decreased temperature, backache, headache and jaundice

Sleeping sickness (Trypanasomisis)

Tse-tse fly

Trypanosoma brucei (protozoan)

Regular sleepiness, sluggishness, drowsiness and fever

Typhus fever

Body louse

Rickettsia prowazekii (bacterium)

Muscle pains and fever

Dengue fever or Devil’s crunch or Breakbone fever

Female aedes mosquito

Dengue fever virus (DENV)

Severe joint, back and head pains, Fever, nausea and vomitting

River Blindness (Onchocerciasis)

Blackfly

Onchocerca volvolus (nematode >> filarial worm)

 

Blindness, hedache and fever

Lassa hemorrhagic fever (Lassa fever)

Rodents

Lassa virus

Bleeding, fever and headaches

Anthrax

Housefly

Bacillus anthracis (Bacterium)

Difficulty in breathing, chest pain and fever

Plague (systemic invasive infectious disease)

Rat flea

Yersinia pestis

(bacterium)

Breathing difficulty, shivering, cough and fever

Tularemia or Rabbit fever or Lawnmower Disease

Mosquitoes and Tick

Francisella tularensis (bacterium)

Joint pains, Headaches and Dry cough

Need more answers to this topic? Please enter your search below:

Kindly share this article via the links below:


len

Please contact Alfred via the above whatsapp link for a comprehensive online academic coaching in Biology, Chemistry, Basic Science and ICT


Click here to read the amazing features of the Len Academy Smart School Software. However, contact Alfred through the above whatsapp link if you require a standard website for your business or school at an affordable price


Please click here to follow Len Academy on Google News.

Please like and follow our official facebook page here for great educational write-ups.

You can follow Len Academy on twitter here.Thank you.


Please Register here or Login here to contribute to this topic by commenting in the box below.


Amazing facts in Basic Science

Antibiotics fights and kills bacteria. However, they do nothing to a virus

All insects have six legs. However, dragonfly has six legs but can't walk

The chin is defined as the protruding part of the face below the mouth, formed by the apex of the lower lip. It is shown below:

Chin - Len Academy

Interestingly, humans are the only animals with chin

Cranberries - Len Academy

Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water

Tomatoes and Avocados are fruits, not vegetables

Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.

Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell

Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack

The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6

Ice cubes - Len Academy

Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear

Cats are unable to taste sweet things


NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science

Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.

Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:

Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:

  • Biodegradable waste

  • Non-Biodegradable waste

  • Refuse

  • Sewage

  • Recyclable waste

  • Electronic waste

  • Green waste

  • Biomedical waste

  • Metabolic waste

  • Radioactive waste

  • Chemical waste

  • Animal product waste

Please read the explanations on the classification of wastes here

The African Star Apple is a seasonal fruit that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It's fondly called African Cherry, Agbalumo or Udara in some parts of Nigeria.

African Star Apple, Cherry, Agbalumo, Udara - Len Academy

Below are some benefits of the African Star Apple:

  • It contains high amount of vitamin C

  • It contains a high amount of calcium

  • It contains high amount of potassium

  • It is a powerful antioxidant

  • It aids in weight reduction

  • It contains a high amount of iron

  • Its leaves, fruits and seeds are medicinal

  • It aids digestion and prevents vomiting

Please read more on the african star apple here

Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.

Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.

Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.

The breast milk contains the disaccharide -> lactose.

Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.

In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.

Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).

  • Maltose = Glucose + Glucose

  • Lactose = Glucose + Galactose

  • Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose

Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose

Polysaccharides are complex sugars. These are what we often eat whenever we eat carbohydrates.

We have four types of polysaccharides namely:

  1. Starch

  2. Glycogen

  3. Chitin

  4. Cellulose

Starchy foods include rice, cassava and yam.

Glycogen is stored in the human liver; as a result of the joining of many glucose molecules.

Chitin is a major component of insect and anthropod's skeleton.

Cellulose is a major component of a plant's cell wall. They cannot be digested when eaten by humans; hence they function as roughages.

Roughages are not classified as one the classes of food in humans. This is due to the fact that they aren't digested. They will rather facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon). For this reason, they can be very useful in treating constipation.

Please read more on carbohydrates here