Basic Science

Vectors - Examples of Vectors, Vector borne Organisms and the Diseases they cause

len Alfred Ajibola - Wed, 05th June, 2019 @ 12:16: PM

Topics in Basic Science

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Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning mass and weight?

  • A. Mass is the amount of matter in a body

  • B. The element hydrogen has the smallest mass

  • C. You will weigh more on planet jupiter than earth

  • D. Weight is a function of gravity

  • E. Mass and Weight have different Standard International (S.I) Units

  • F. None of the above

Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning matter?

  • A. Anything considered as matter must either have mass or occupy space

  • B. Air is an example of matter

  • C. Plasma is a state of matter

  • D. Chemistry is considered as the study of matter and the changes they undergo

  • E. Vacuum is a space completely void of matter

  • F. Matter will always take up space no matter how small or invincible it is to the eyes

Which of the following is NOT matter?

  • A. Atom

  • B. Molecule

  • C. Ion

  • D. Bacterium

  • E. Virus

  • F. None of the above

The ultimate source of energy is _____.

  1. Plant
  2. Sun
  3. Food
  4. Water
  5. Air
  6. Earth

The speed of wind is measured with a wind vane.

TRUE or FALSE

The nutrient majorly found in the liver is _____.

  • A. Carbohydrate
  • B. Starch
  • C. Protein
  • D. Fats
  • E. Oil
  • F. Lipids

A body at rest possess _____ energy.

  • A. Kinetic
  • B. Potential
  • C. Mechanical
  • D. Chemical

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What are Vectors?

A vector is any animal that transmits disease causing organisms (pathogens or germs) into a host.

Note: Ideally, a vector should be an animal. It is important to point out this fact because we have other organisms that aren't animals, yet are still capable of transmitting diseases.

Please read on the Basic Introduction to Biology here.

A disease is a deviation from the normal physiological and anatomical state of an organism which is usually associated with some specific signs and symptoms.

Please read on Micro-organisms causing Food, Water and Air Borne Diseases here.

Note: A host is an organism on which another organism (called a parasite) lives and feed on. They usually suffer in a parasitic relationship.

Please read on Homeostasis here.

The disease causing organism (pathogen or germs) when inside the vector causes no disease to it; but as soon as the vector introduces the pathogen into the host, it affects the physiological system of the host; and as a result brings about diseases in the infected host.

For example, the pathogen for river blindness in humans is Onchocerca volvolus. This pathogen initially lived inside the blackfly which happens to be its vector.

The Onchocerca volvolus (within the blackfly) causes no harm to it but as soon as the blackfly introduces it into its host (humans), it may then bring about river blindness to its host.

Please read on Immunization here.

 

Diseases caused by Vectors and their Symptoms

The table below shows some vectors, the micro organism they carry and the disease they transmit to humans.

Disease

Vector

Disease causing organism (carried by vector)

Symptoms

Malaria

Female anopheles mosquito

Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax (protozoan)

High fever, shivering and sweating

Yellow Fever

Aedes mosquito

Flavivirus fibricus

High fever, decreased temperature, backache, headache and jaundice

Sleeping sickness (Trypanasomisis)

Tse-tse fly

Trypanosoma brucei (protozoan)

Regular sleepiness, sluggishness, drowsiness and fever

Typhus fever

Body louse

Rickettsia prowazekii (bacterium)

Muscle pains and fever

Dengue fever or Devil’s crunch or Breakbone fever

Female aedes mosquito

Dengue fever virus (DENV)

Severe joint, back and head pains, Fever, nausea and vomitting

River Blindness (Onchocerciasis)

Blackfly

Onchocerca volvolus (nematode >> filarial worm)

 

Blindness, hedache and fever

Lassa hemorrhagic fever (Lassa fever)

Rodents

Lassa virus

Bleeding, fever and headaches

Anthrax

Housefly

Bacillus anthracis (Bacterium)

Difficulty in breathing, chest pain and fever

Plague (systemic invasive infectious disease)

Rat flea

Yersinia pestis

(bacterium)

Breathing difficulty, shivering, cough and fever

Tularemia or Rabbit fever or Lawnmower Disease

Mosquitoes and Tick

Francisella tularensis (bacterium)

Joint pains, Headaches and Dry cough

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Basic Science

Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack

The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6

Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear

🐈 Cats 🐈 are unable to taste sweet things

🍎 Apples 🍎 actually float on water. Other fruits that float on water include 🍋 lemons, 🍌 bananas, 🍐 pears, and 🍊 oranges

Rain water contains vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient that keeps the blood cells and neurones healthy. It also assist in building the DNA (a genetic material present in the cell's nucleus). Vitamin B12 also aid in the prevention of megaloblastic anemia which makes people weak and tired

Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your ✋ palm ✋

Goats have rectangular pupils in their eyes.

Think of the pupil as a hole located in the centre of the iris within of the eye.

Note: To get an idea of an iris; 'when one is said to have blue eyes', it's because the iris is blue

Among all land animals, 🐘 Elephants 🐘 have the longest gestation period.

They stay pregnant for 22 months before giving birth to their young

🦘 Kangaroos 🦘 can't walk backwards


NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science

Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.

Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.

Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.

The breast milk contains the disaccharide Lactose.

Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.

In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.

Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).

  • Maltose = Glucose + Glucose

  • Lactose = Glucose + Galactose

  • Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose

Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose

Polysaccharides are complex sugars. These are what we often eat whenever we eat carbohydrates.

We have four types of polysaccharides namely:

  1. Starch
  2. Glycogen
  3. Chitin
  4. Cellulose

 

  • Starchy foods include rice, cassava and yam.

  • Glycogen is stored in the human liver; as a result of the joining of many glucose molecules.

  • Chitin is a major component of insect and anthropod's skeleton.

  • Cellulose is a major component of a plant's cell wall. They cannot be digested when eaten by humans; hence they function as roughages.

Roughages are not classified as one the classes of food in humans. This is due to the fact that they aren't digested. They will rather facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon); and for this reason, they can be very useful in treating constipation.

Please read more on carbohydrates here

The uniqueness of man can be defined as that which makes man distinct from every other animal and living organism.

Humans are higher animals when compared to other animals.

Under the classification of living organisms, humans belong to an order termed primates and thus share the same characteristics (as primates). In addition to these features, they also have their unique characteristics.

Please read on man's uniqueness here

The eyebrow is an area of dense, delicate hair just above the eye.

Eyebrows perform two main functions:

  1. Protects our eyes against sweat, rain, dirt and other atmospheric contaminants.
  2. It helps us express our emotions.

Eye Brow - Len Academy

Eyebrow modified in the form of Nike logo.

Note: Eyebrows can also be modified to enhance beauty.

All fruits have seeds.

There is nothing like a naturally occurring seedless fruit. Even banana, coconut and pineapple have all got seeds.