Basic Science

Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases

len Alfred Ajibola - Wed, 05th June, 2019 @ 12:18: PM

Topics in Basic Science

Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates - Characteristics of Primates Effects of Improper Waste Management Waste Management: Causes of Waste Concept of Mass and Weight Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Macro-nutrients) Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Micro-nutrients) Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases Vectors - Examples of Vectors, Vector borne Organisms and the Diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs Immunization, Processes involved in immunization and its importance Food: Carbohydrates and Sugars Uniqueness of Man: Unique Characteristics of Man Waste Management: Types of Waste Matter: Concept of Matter


Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Biomedic wastes are also referred to as _____ wastes.

  • A. Hospital

  • B. Recyclable

  • C. Metabolic

  • D. Green

  • E. Radioactive

  • F. Electronic

Sweat and urine are best considered as _____ waste.

  • A. Non-Biodegradable

  • B. Refuse

  • C. Recyclable

  • D. Metabolic

  • E. Green

  • F. Radioactive

_____ is defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.

  • A. Waste collecting and processing

  • B. Waste processing and collecting

  • C. Waste recycling and control

  • D. Waste control and recycling

  • E. Waste treatment

  • F. Waste Management

Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning mass and weight?

  • A. Mass is the amount of matter in a body

  • B. The element hydrogen has the smallest mass

  • C. You will weigh more on planet jupiter than earth

  • D. Weight is a function of gravity

  • E. Mass and Weight have different Standard International (S.I) Units

  • F. None of the above

Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning matter?

  • A. Anything considered as matter must either have mass or occupy space

  • B. Air is an example of matter

  • C. Plasma is a state of matter

  • D. Chemistry is considered as the study of matter and the changes they undergo

  • E. Vacuum is a space completely void of matter

  • F. Matter will always take up space no matter how small or invincible it is to the eyes

Which of the following is NOT matter?

  • A. Atom

  • B. Molecule

  • C. Ion

  • D. Bacterium

  • E. Virus

  • F. None of the above

The ultimate source of energy is _____.

  1. Plant
  2. Sun
  3. Food
  4. Water
  5. Air
  6. Earth

The speed of wind is measured with a wind vane.

TRUE or FALSE

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Disease causing Organisms:

Often times, diseases are transmitted by micro-organisms called germs or pathogens. These germs may contact their host either directly or indirectly.

An example of direct contact may be seen when the host drinks infected water (contaminated by the bacterium Vibro cholerae).

Please read on Immunization here.

An indirect contact will occur when the disease causing organism (pathogen or germ) lives inside another organism called a vector.

In an indirect contact, the pathogen does no harm to the vector but as soon as it’s introduced into the host, it begins its destructive activities.

An example is a protist (also a protozoan) called plasmodium malariae.

Please read on Protists here.

Note: plasmodium malariae lives inside the female anopheles mosquito before it's introduced into humans.

As soon as the female anopheles mosquito pierces and sucks into its host, it introduces the plasmodium into the host’s blood where it commences its destructive actions. As a result, such host will get malaria; and the malaria was caused via the plasmodium malariae (pathogen) and not the mosquito (vector).

Please read more on Vectors here

Note the followings:

  • A disease is a deviation from the normal physiological and anatomical state of an organism which is usually associated with some specific signs and symptoms.
  • Physiological state refers to the way an organism function.
  • Anatomical state refers to various structures associated with an organism.
  • Please read on Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Mechanism here

  • A host is an organism on which another organism (called a parasite) lives and feed on.
  • The host usually suffer in a parasitic relationship.

  • A vector is any organism that carries a disease causing organism (called germs or pathogens). Houseflies and Mosquitoes are examples of vectors.

Vectors of Diseases - Len Academy

 

How does Diseases Spread?

Diseases can spread (or be transmitted) in a variety of ways. These are:

  1. Food: Through food borne pathogens.

  2. Water: Through water borne pathogens.

  3. Air: Through air borne pathogens.

  4. Direct skin contact or Personal contact.

  5. Vectors or Carriers.

Please read on Reptiles and their Characteristics here

 

Diseases caused by Micro-organisms

The table below shows the summary of Diseases, their causative organisms, Mode of transmission and Symptoms in humans:

Diseases

Causative Organisms

Mode of Transmission

Symptoms

Typhoid fever

Salmonella typhi (bacterium)

Food and Water

High fever, General body weakness, Constipation, Headache, Vomiting and Abdominal pain

Cholera

Vibro cholerae (Bacterium)

Water

Diarrhea (stooling) and vomiting, Abdominal pain, High temperature, High fever and Headache

Polio Myelitis (infant paralysis)

Poliovirus

Water

Paralysis of the limbs as a result of nervous disorders connecting to the limbs

Hepatitis

Hepatovirus

Water

Liver becomes swollen, Fever, Headache and Jaundice

Bacillic Dysentery

Shigella dysenteriae (Bacterium)

Water and Food

Diarrhea, Abdominal pain and Fever

Amoebic Dysentery

Entamoeba hystolitica (protozoan)

Food and Water

Diarrhea and vomiting, Abdominal pain

Food Poisoning

Bacillus cereus (Bacterium)

Food

Restlessness, Headache, Abdominal pain and vomiting

Para-Typhoid

Salmonella para-typhi (Bacteria)

Water and Food

High Fever, Constipation or Diarrhea

Measles

RNA paramyxovirus

 

Air and Body contact

Skin rashes, High fever, Cough, Body pain and Headache

Pneumonia

Bacterial pneumonia

Air

Difficulty in breathing, Cough and Fever

Tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Bacterium)

Air and Food

Persistent dry cough, Blood in sputum, Loss of weight, Abnormal Sweating, High temperature

Small Pox

Variola major and Variola minor (virus)

Air

Skin rashes, Skin blisters and Fever

Common cold

Rhinovirus and Coronaviruses

Air

Runny nose, headache, high fever

Meningitis

Meningococcus (Bacterium)

Air

Stiffness of the neck, Vomiting, Headache and Fever

Chicken pox

Human Herpes virus 3 (HPV-3)

Air

Skin rash, Itchy skin

Whooping Cough

Bordetella pertussis (Bacterium)

Air

Cough, Cold, Vomiting, Fever

Influenza

Influenza Virus (types A and B)

Air

Shivering, Body Pain, Headache, High Fever

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Basic Science

Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.

Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell

Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack

The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6

Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear

🐈 Cats 🐈 are unable to taste sweet things

🍎 Apples 🍎 actually float on water. Other fruits that float on water include 🍋 lemons, 🍌 bananas, 🍐 pears, and 🍊 oranges

Rain water contains vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient that keeps the blood cells and neurones healthy. It also assist in building the DNA (a genetic material present in the cell's nucleus). Vitamin B12 also aid in the prevention of megaloblastic anemia which makes people weak and tired

Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your ✋ palm ✋

Goats have rectangular pupils in their eyes.

Think of the pupil as a hole located in the centre of the iris within of the eye.

Note: To get an idea of an iris; 'when one is said to have blue eyes', it's because the iris is blue

Among all land animals, 🐘 Elephants 🐘 have the longest gestation period.

They stay pregnant for 22 months before giving birth to their young


NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science

Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.

Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.

Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.

The breast milk contains the disaccharide Lactose.

Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.

In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.

Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).

  • Maltose = Glucose + Glucose

  • Lactose = Glucose + Galactose

  • Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose

Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose

Polysaccharides are complex sugars. These are what we often eat whenever we eat carbohydrates.

We have four types of polysaccharides namely:

  1. Starch
  2. Glycogen
  3. Chitin
  4. Cellulose

 

  • Starchy foods include rice, cassava and yam.

  • Glycogen is stored in the human liver; as a result of the joining of many glucose molecules.

  • Chitin is a major component of insect and anthropod's skeleton.

  • Cellulose is a major component of a plant's cell wall. They cannot be digested when eaten by humans; hence they function as roughages.

Roughages are not classified as one the classes of food in humans. This is due to the fact that they aren't digested. They will rather facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon); and for this reason, they can be very useful in treating constipation.

Please read more on carbohydrates here

The uniqueness of man can be defined as that which makes man distinct from every other animal and living organism.

Humans are higher animals when compared to other animals.

Under the classification of living organisms, humans belong to an order termed primates and thus share the same characteristics (as primates). In addition to these features, they also have their unique characteristics.

Please read on man's uniqueness here

The eyebrow is an area of dense, delicate hair just above the eye.

Eyebrows perform two main functions:

  1. Protects our eyes against sweat, rain, dirt and other atmospheric contaminants.
  2. It helps us express our emotions.

Eye Brow - Len Academy

Eyebrow modified in the form of Nike logo.

Note: Eyebrows can also be modified to enhance beauty.

All fruits have seeds.

There is nothing like a naturally occurring seedless fruit. Even banana, coconut and pineapple have all got seeds.