Basic Science

Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases

len Alfred Ajibola - Wed, 05th June, 2019 @ 12:18: PM

Topics in Basic Science

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Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning mass and weight?

  • A. Mass is the amount of matter in a body

  • B. The element hydrogen has the smallest mass

  • C. You will weigh more on planet jupiter than earth

  • D. Weight is a function of gravity

  • E. Mass and Weight have different Standard International (S.I) Units

  • F. None of the above

Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning matter?

  • A. Anything considered as matter must either have mass or occupy space

  • B. Air is an example of matter

  • C. Plasma is a state of matter

  • D. Chemistry is considered as the study of matter and the changes they undergo

  • E. Vacuum is a space completely void of matter

  • F. Matter will always take up space no matter how small or invincible it is to the eyes

Which of the following is NOT matter?

  • A. Atom

  • B. Molecule

  • C. Ion

  • D. Bacterium

  • E. Virus

  • F. None of the above

The ultimate source of energy is _____.

  1. Plant
  2. Sun
  3. Food
  4. Water
  5. Air
  6. Earth

The speed of wind is measured with a wind vane.

TRUE or FALSE

The nutrient majorly found in the liver is _____.

  • A. Carbohydrate
  • B. Starch
  • C. Protein
  • D. Fats
  • E. Oil
  • F. Lipids

A body at rest possess _____ energy.

  • A. Kinetic
  • B. Potential
  • C. Mechanical
  • D. Chemical

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Disease causing Organisms:

Often times, diseases are transmitted by micro-organisms called germs or pathogens. These germs may contact their host either directly or indirectly.

An example of direct contact may be seen when the host drinks infected water (contaminated by the bacterium Vibro cholerae).

Please read on Immunization here.

An indirect contact will occur when the disease causing organism (pathogen or germ) lives inside another organism called a vector.

In an indirect contact, the pathogen does no harm to the vector but as soon as it’s introduced into the host, it begins its destructive activities.

An example is a protist (also a protozoan) called plasmodium malariae.

Please read on Protists here.

Note: plasmodium malariae lives inside the female anopheles mosquito before it's introduced into humans.

As soon as the female anopheles mosquito pierces and sucks into its host, it introduces the plasmodium into the host’s blood where it commences its destructive actions. As a result, such host will get malaria; and the malaria was caused via the plasmodium malariae (pathogen) and not the mosquito (vector).

Please read more on Vectors here

Note the followings:

  • A disease is a deviation from the normal physiological and anatomical state of an organism which is usually associated with some specific signs and symptoms.
  • Physiological state refers to the way an organism function.
  • Anatomical state refers to various structures associated with an organism.
  • Please read on Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Mechanism here

  • A host is an organism on which another organism (called a parasite) lives and feed on.
  • The host usually suffer in a parasitic relationship.

  • A vector is any organism that carries a disease causing organism (called germs or pathogens). Houseflies and Mosquitoes are examples of vectors.

Vectors of Diseases - Len Academy

 

How does Diseases Spread?

Diseases can spread (or be transmitted) in a variety of ways. These are:

  1. Food: Through food borne pathogens.

  2. Water: Through water borne pathogens.

  3. Air: Through air borne pathogens.

  4. Direct skin contact or Personal contact.

  5. Vectors or Carriers.

Please read on Reptiles and their Characteristics here

 

Diseases caused by Micro-organisms

The table below shows the summary of Diseases, their causative organisms, Mode of transmission and Symptoms in humans:

Diseases

Causative Organisms

Mode of Transmission

Symptoms

Typhoid fever

Salmonella typhi (bacterium)

Food and Water

High fever, General body weakness, Constipation, Headache, Vomiting and Abdominal pain

Cholera

Vibro cholerae (Bacterium)

Water

Diarrhea (stooling) and vomiting, Abdominal pain, High temperature, High fever and Headache

Polio Myelitis (infant paralysis)

Poliovirus

Water

Paralysis of the limbs as a result of nervous disorders connecting to the limbs

Hepatitis

Hepatovirus

Water

Liver becomes swollen, Fever, Headache and Jaundice

Bacillic Dysentery

Shigella dysenteriae (Bacterium)

Water and Food

Diarrhea, Abdominal pain and Fever

Amoebic Dysentery

Entamoeba hystolitica (protozoan)

Food and Water

Diarrhea and vomiting, Abdominal pain

Food Poisoning

Bacillus cereus (Bacterium)

Food

Restlessness, Headache, Abdominal pain and vomiting

Para-Typhoid

Salmonella para-typhi (Bacteria)

Water and Food

High Fever, Constipation or Diarrhea

Measles

RNA paramyxovirus

 

Air and Body contact

Skin rashes, High fever, Cough, Body pain and Headache

Pneumonia

Bacterial pneumonia

Air

Difficulty in breathing, Cough and Fever

Tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Bacterium)

Air and Food

Persistent dry cough, Blood in sputum, Loss of weight, Abnormal Sweating, High temperature

Small Pox

Variola major and Variola minor (virus)

Air

Skin rashes, Skin blisters and Fever

Common cold

Rhinovirus and Coronaviruses

Air

Runny nose, headache, high fever

Meningitis

Meningococcus (Bacterium)

Air

Stiffness of the neck, Vomiting, Headache and Fever

Chicken pox

Human Herpes virus 3 (HPV-3)

Air

Skin rash, Itchy skin

Whooping Cough

Bordetella pertussis (Bacterium)

Air

Cough, Cold, Vomiting, Fever

Influenza

Influenza Virus (types A and B)

Air

Shivering, Body Pain, Headache, High Fever

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len

Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Basic Science

Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your ✋ palm ✋

Goats have rectangular pupils in their eyes.

Think of the pupil as a hole located in the centre of the iris within of the eye.

Note: To get an idea of an iris; 'when one is said to have blue eyes', it's because the iris is blue

Among all land animals, 🐘 Elephants 🐘 have the longest gestation period.

They stay pregnant for 22 months before giving birth to their young

🦘 Kangaroos 🦘 can't walk backwards

The 🥛 milk 🥛 of an 🦛 hippopotamus 🦛 is pink in color

The seed of all fruits are present on the inside with the exception of one.

That exception is 🍓 strawberry 🍓

🍓 strawberry 🍓 has it's seed outside the fruit

It actually takes 🍍 pineapples 🍍 2 years to grow

The liquid inside a coconut 🥥 can be used as an excellent substitute for your blood plasma

Facts on Elephants - Len Academy

Elephants can't jump


NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science

The eyebrow is an area of dense, delicate hair just above the eye.

Eyebrows perform two main functions:

  1. Protects our eyes against sweat, rain, dirt and other atmospheric contaminants.
  2. It helps us express our emotions.

Eye Brow - Len Academy

Eyebrow modified in the form of Nike logo.

Note: Eyebrows can also be modified to enhance beauty.

All fruits have seeds.

There is nothing like a naturally occurring seedless fruit. Even banana, coconut and pineapple have all got seeds.

Weight can be defined as the force of gravity acting on an object.

If you traveled to space, you would be weightless because there isn't any force of gravity acting there. We all have weight on earth becasue the force of gravity acts here.

Weight is measured in Newton

Please read on the concept of Mass and Weight here

Mass is the amount or quantity of matter (substance) contained in a body. For instance, everything you are composed of, both from within and outside will make up your mass.

Mass is constant throughout the universe. You will have the same mass on earth and moon respectively.

Mass is measured in gram or kilogram and it's quite different from weight.

Matter is anything that has mass and occupy space.

Matter can exist in four states namely:

  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • Plasma