Basic Science

Matter: Concept of Matter

len Alfred Ajibola - 07th February, 2019 @ 11:15 AM

Topics in Basic Science

Resources from living things Resources from animals Importance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Microorganisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs


Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.

  • A. True

  • B. False

With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.

  • A. International bodies

  • B. Antilators

  • C. Antibodies

  • D. Antigens

  • E. Antibiotics

  • F. Antidotes

Disease causing organisms are termed _____.

  • A. Pests

  • B. Pathogens

  • C. Vectors

  • D. Insects

  • E. Disease carriers

  • F. All the above options are correct

____ is formed from a reaction utilizing oxygen and glucose in the mitochondria of cells.

  • A. Galactose

  • B. Fructose

  • C. Sucrose

  • D. AMP

  • E. ADP

  • F. ATP

Which of the following statement is false concerning carbohydrates?

  • A. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only

  • B. Carbon has the highest ratio of the constituent elements of carbohydrates

  • C. All carbohydrates are sugars

  • D. Fructose is a carbohydrate

  • E. Natural milk contains lactose and it's a carbohydrate

  • F. Fatty foods contains high calories of energy when compared to the same quantity of carbohydrate foods

Which of the following is a class of food?

  • A. Water

  • B. Fibre

  • C. Roughages

  • D. Latex

  • E. Tanins

  • F. Wax

Brachiation is a specialized form of movement exhibited by _____.

  • A. Human beings

  • B. Babbons

  • C. Chameleons

  • D. Toads

  • E. Millipedes

  • F. Birds

_____ is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs.

  • A. Pedalism

  • B. Duo Pedalism

  • C. Double Pedalism

  • D. Dual Pedalism

  • E. Bipedalism

  • F. Copedalism


Concept of Matter:

Having a good understanding of matter will aid you to better comprehend chemistry and physics.

Matter is defined as anything that has mass and occupy space. Through this definition, we can conclude that matter has two main attributes, qualities or characteristics. These are:


1. Mass

Mass is the amount of matter you have or anything has. You may consider it to be the entire composition of anything. For instance, everything you are composed of (from the top of your hair to your toe nails, including all your internal organs) will account for your mass. For this reason, your mass would be significantly different from that of a newly born child.


To accurately account for the mass of humans, we will have to wear nothing on our body. This is so because our clothes, shoes and accessories will add to our mass since each of these is considered as a separate matter from our body: that is, they have their respective mass and occupy space as well.


It is worthy of note to state that mass is not the same thing as weight.

Please read more on mass versus weight here.


Meanwhile, you can also think of mass as the total composition of anything, both within (inside) and without (outside).

Using a cup of rice as an instance, its ideal mass will be attributed to all its entire composition; both within (rice) and without (cup).

Please read on molecular mass and its calculations here.


2. Space

Matter will always take up space no matter how small it is. This is true because some instances of matter can be microscopic (only be seen with the aid of a microscope). Viruses, bacteria and protists are examples of microscopic matter in this case.

You can read on protists and their characteristics here.


Regardless how small a thing is to the human eyes, they will still (always) occupy space. For this reason, the atmosphere is never empty, rather it's always filled with gases, bacteria, pathogens, dust and other tiny particles.

Please read on the composition and functions of the atmosphere here.


According to scientific research, there are approximately 100 billion bacteria on the human body. Although we can't even see any of these, they still take up (occupy) spaces on our skin.

Please read on amazing facts in biology here.

A space completely void of matter is referred to as a 'vacuum'. Vacuum environment do not exist naturally, rather they are prepared for medical and scientific reasons.


From the above explanations on matter, it can be summarized that matter is everything around us, both the things we can see and those we can't. In fact, you are matter yourself. No matter how small a thing can be (even if they are microscopic and can't be seen with the naked eyes), they will still always have mass and occupy space.


Matter exists in four states. They are:

  1. Solid
    Please read on solid state of matter here.
  2. Liquid
    Please read on liquid state of matter here.
  3. Gases
    You can read on gaseous state of matter here.
  4. Plasma

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Amazing facts in Basic Science

Of all animals, mosquitoes hold the record of killing most humans annually. They are responsible for the deaths of 725,000 - 1,000,000 persons yearly

Antibiotics fights and kills bacteria. However, they do nothing to a virus

All insects have six legs. However, dragonfly has six legs but can't walk

The chin is defined as the protruding part of the face below the mouth, formed by the apex of the lower lip. It is shown below:

Chin - Len Academy

Interestingly, humans are the only animals with chin

Cranberries - Len Academy

Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water

Tomatoes and Avocados are fruits, not vegetables

Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.

Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell

Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack

The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6

Ice cubes - Len Academy

Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear


NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a score derived from a set of standardized tests developed to measure a person's cognitive abilities in relation to their age group.

IQ may also be defined as the ratio of mental age (MA) to chronological age (CA) multiplied by 100.

Below are some formulas pertaining Intelligence Quotient:

  • IQ = MA x 100 ÷ CA

  • MA = Mental age

  • CA = Chronological age

  • IQ above 100 = Brilliance

  • IQ that equals 100 = Average

  • IQ below 100 = Below Average

Human Brain Gyri and Sulci - Len Academy

Among all organisms in the universe, the human brain is the most developed. This highly developed brain present in humans is the biggest factor that makes them unique from every other organism on earth.

According to research, the more folds a brain has, the more intelligent the organism possessing it will become. To this end, humans have brains with the greatest number of folds (or bumps) called gyri and grooves (or indentations) called sulci.

Please read on the uniqueness of man here.

Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.

Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:

Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:

  • Biodegradable waste

  • Non-Biodegradable waste

  • Refuse

  • Sewage

  • Recyclable waste

  • Electronic waste

  • Green waste

  • Biomedical waste

  • Metabolic waste

  • Radioactive waste

  • Chemical waste

  • Animal product waste

Please read the explanations on the classification of wastes here

The African Star Apple is a seasonal fruit that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It's fondly called African Cherry, Agbalumo or Udara in some parts of Nigeria.

African Star Apple, Cherry, Agbalumo, Udara - Len Academy

Below are some benefits of the African Star Apple:

  • It contains high amount of vitamin C

  • It contains a high amount of calcium

  • It contains high amount of potassium

  • It is a powerful antioxidant

  • It aids in weight reduction

  • It contains a high amount of iron

  • Its leaves, fruits and seeds are medicinal

  • It aids digestion and prevents vomiting

Please read more on the african star apple here