Basic Science

Matter: Concept of Matter

len Alfred Ajibola - 07th February, 2019 @ 11:15 AM

Topics in Basic Science

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Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.

  • A. True

  • B. False

With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.

  • A. International bodies

  • B. Antilators

  • C. Antibodies

  • D. Antigens

  • E. Antibiotics

  • F. Antidotes

Disease causing organisms are termed _____.

  • A. Pests

  • B. Pathogens

  • C. Vectors

  • D. Insects

  • E. Disease carriers

  • F. All the above options are correct

____ is formed from a reaction utilizing oxygen and glucose in the mitochondria of cells.

  • A. Galactose

  • B. Fructose

  • C. Sucrose

  • D. AMP

  • E. ADP

  • F. ATP

Which of the following statement is false concerning carbohydrates?

  • A. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only

  • B. Carbon has the highest ratio of the constituent elements of carbohydrates

  • C. All carbohydrates are sugars

  • D. Fructose is a carbohydrate

  • E. Natural milk contains lactose and it's a carbohydrate

  • F. Fatty foods contains high calories of energy when compared to the same quantity of carbohydrate foods

Which of the following is a class of food?

  • A. Water

  • B. Fibre

  • C. Roughages

  • D. Latex

  • E. Tanins

  • F. Wax

Brachiation is a specialized form of movement exhibited by _____.

  • A. Human beings

  • B. Babbons

  • C. Chameleons

  • D. Toads

  • E. Millipedes

  • F. Birds

_____ is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs.

  • A. Pedalism

  • B. Duo Pedalism

  • C. Double Pedalism

  • D. Dual Pedalism

  • E. Bipedalism

  • F. Copedalism

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Concept of Matter:

Having a good understanding of matter will aid you to better understand Chemistry and Physics.

Matter is defined as anything that has mass and occupy space.

From the above definition, we can conclude that matter has two main attributes, qualities or characteristics. These are:


1. Mass

Mass is the amount of matter you have or anything has. You may consider it to be the entire composition of anything. For instance, everything you are composed of (from the top of your hair to your toe nails, including all your internal organs) will account for your mass. For this reason, your mass would be significantly different from that of a newly born child.

Note: To accurately account for the mass of humans, we will have to wear nothing on our body. This is so because our clothes, shoes and accessories will add to our mass since each of these is considered as a separate matter from our body. (That is, each has its own mass and occupies space).

Mass is not the same thing as weight.

Please read on Mass versus Weight here.

Note: You can also think of mass as the total composition of anything, both within (inside) and without (outside).

Using a cup of rice as an instance, its ideal mass will be attributed to all its entire composition; both within (rice) and without (cup).

Please read on Molecular Mass and its Calculations here.


2. Space

Matter will always take up space no matter how small it is. This is true because some instances of matter can be microscopic (only be seen with the aid of a microscope). Viruses, bacteria and protists are examples of microscopic matter in this case.

Please read on Protists and their Characteristics here.

Regardless how small a thing is (to the human eyes), they will still (always) occupy space. This is why the atmosphere is never empty; rather it's always filled with gases, bacteria, pathogens and other tiny particles.

Please read on the Composition and Functions of the Atmosphere here.

According to scientific research, there are approximately 100 billion bacteria on the human body. Although we can't even see any of these, they still take up (occupy) spaces on our skin.

Please read on some Amazing Facts in Biology here.

Note: A space completely void of matter is referred to as a vacuum. Vacuum environment do not exist naturally, rather they are prepared for medical and scientific reasons.


The point is:

Matter is everything around you, both the things you can see and those you can't see with your eyes. In fact, you are matter yourself. No matter how small a thing can be (even if they are microscopic and can't be seen with the naked eyes), they will still always have mass and occupy space.

Matter exists in four states. They are:

  1. Solid
    Please read on Solid State of Matter here.
  2. Liquid
    Please read on Liquid State of Matter here.
  3. Gases
    Please read on Gaseous State of Matter here.
  4. Plasma

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Basic Science

Cranberries - Len Academy

Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water

Tomatoes and Avocados are fruits, not vegetables

Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.

Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell

Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack

The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6

Ice cubes - Len Academy

Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear

Cats are unable to taste sweet things

Apples float on water. Other fruits that float on water include lemons, bananas, pears, and oranges

Rain water is said to be pure because it's colorless, odourless and tasteless. Interestingly, it also contains vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient that keeps the blood cells and neurones healthy. It also assist in building the DNA (a genetic material present in the cell's nucleus). Vitamin B12 also aid in the prevention of megaloblastic anemia which makes people weak and tired

Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your palm


NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science

Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.

Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:

Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:

  • Biodegradable waste

  • Non-Biodegradable waste

  • Refuse

  • Sewage

  • Recyclable waste

  • Electronic waste

  • Green waste

  • Biomedical waste

  • Metabolic waste

  • Radioactive waste

  • Chemical waste

  • Animal product waste

Please read the explanations on the classification of wastes here

The African Star Apple is a seasonal fruit that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It's fondly called African Cherry, Agbalumo or Udara in some parts of Nigeria.

African Star Apple, Cherry, Agbalumo, Udara - Len Academy

Below are some benefits of the African Star Apple:

  • It contains high amount of vitamin C

  • It contains a high amount of calcium

  • It contains high amount of potassium

  • It is a powerful antioxidant

  • It aids in weight reduction

  • It contains a high amount of iron

  • Its leaves, fruits and seeds are medicinal

  • It aids digestion and prevents vomiting

Please read more on the african star apple here

Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.

Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.

Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.

The breast milk contains the disaccharide -> lactose.

Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.

In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.

Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).

  • Maltose = Glucose + Glucose

  • Lactose = Glucose + Galactose

  • Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose

Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose

Polysaccharides are complex sugars. These are what we often eat whenever we eat carbohydrates.

We have four types of polysaccharides namely:

  1. Starch

  2. Glycogen

  3. Chitin

  4. Cellulose

Starchy foods include rice, cassava and yam.

Glycogen is stored in the human liver; as a result of the joining of many glucose molecules.

Chitin is a major component of insect and anthropod's skeleton.

Cellulose is a major component of a plant's cell wall. They cannot be digested when eaten by humans; hence they function as roughages.

Roughages are not classified as one the classes of food in humans. This is due to the fact that they aren't digested. They will rather facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon). For this reason, they can be very useful in treating constipation.

Please read more on carbohydrates here