Chemistry

Gaseous State of Matter: Characteristics of Gases

len Alfred Ajibola - Sat, 14th December, 2019 @ 18:51: PM

Topics in Chemistry

Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Compounds in Chemistry: Characteristics of Compounds Types of Mixture: Homogenous and Heterogeneous Mixtures Mixtures: Characteristics of Mixtures Physical Properties of Matter explained with Examples Chemical Properties of Matter explained with Examples Differences between Physical and Chemical Change Ionic Theory and Electrolysis Physical and Chemical Properties of Acids States of Matter: Characteristics of Solids Liquid State of Matter: Characteristics of Liquids Gaseous State of Matter: Characteristics of Gases Molar Mass, Worked Examples and Differences with Molecular Mass Elements: Characteristics of Elements Salts and Types of Salt in Chemistry Mixtures and Separation of Mixtures Mixtures and Separation of Mixtures - part 2 Mixtures and Separation of Mixtures - part 3


Academic Questions in Chemistry

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

The Separating Funnel is a technique used in the separation of mixtures. Another name for Separating Funnel is the _____ Funnel.

  • A. Partition
  • B. Separatory
  • C. Division
  • D. Liquid
  • E. Half
  • F. Dividing

2NH4+(aq) + Ag+(aq) -> 2H4AgN

The equation above represents _____ acid.

  • A. Svante Arrhenius'

  • B. Brønsted–Lowry's

  • C. Gilbert Lewis'

  • D. Avogadro's

  • E. Sir Isaac Newton's

  • F. Albert Einstein's

According to Brønsted Thomas Martin Lowry, an acid is defined as _____.

  • A. Any substance that produces hydrogen ion (H+) when dissolved in water

  • B. A substance that accepts electron pair in a chemical reaction

  • C. A substance that gives out hydronium ion (H3O+) when dissolved in water

  • D. A substance that donates a proton in a chemical reaction

  • E. A substance that reacts with a base to form salt and water

  • F. A substance whose hydrogen ions  (H+) are displaced after a reaction with metals higher in the activity, reactivity or electrochemical series

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of chemical change?

  • A. A new thing is formed
  • B. It cannot be easily separated into it's constituents elements
  • C. A new chemical formula accompanies whatever is formed
  • D. The burning of candle is an example of a chemical change
  • E. Blood is an example of a chemical change
  • F. Iron rust is an example of a chemical change

Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning a physical change _____.

  • A. Substances formed in a physical change have a unique chemical formula and IUPAC name
  • B. It's a change that is easily reversible
  • C. It's a change that can be separated via an appropriate separation technique
  • D. No new substance is formed
  • E. A mixture of salt and water is a physical change
  • F. Physical change can result to a change in color and shapes of substances

The following substances will sublime EXCEPT _____.

  • A. Sodium Cryolite
  • B. Solid Carbon(IV)oxide
  • C. Arsenic
  • D. Sulphur
  • E. Iodine Crystals
  • F. Naphthalene

Which of the following is a state of matter?

  • A. Ions
  • B. Plasma
  • C. Compounds
  • D. Molecules
  • E. Atoms
  • F. None of the above

The ideal way of separating a mixture of blood is through _____.

  • A. Chromatography
  • B. Fractional Distillation
  • C. Centrifugation
  • D. Filtration
  • E. Separating Funnel
  • F. Fractional Crystallization

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Gaseous State of Matter:

Have you wondered why a gas (let's say a cooking gas for instance) will suddenly fill a room as soon as it's released from it's container?

To answer the above question, the gas particles were already moving randomly while inside the gas cylinder. In fact, the particles were always waiting to escape as soon a tiny opening is made on whatever had been containing it.

From the above instance, we can categorically state that:

Gases are made up of particles that are widely separated from one another.

Please read on the Particles of Solids and their Characteristics here.

Note: Consider a particle to be the smallest part a anything. For instance, if you can pick up the smallest part of a finely grinded sugar, then such could be considered as a particle or an atom of the sugar.

An atom is defined as the smallest part (or particle) of a substance that can take part in a chemical reaction.

In reality, it is practically impossible to pick up a particle or an atom of a finely grinded substance; for example, table salt.

Please read on Dalton's Atomic Theory and its Modifications here.

An understanding of matter, atoms and particles will aid you to better understand the states of matter.

Please read on the Concept of Matter here.

Gases have their particles widely separated apart. For this reason, they are constantly moving (in a random motion); thus they have no definite shape at room temperature.

Gaseous particles are always considered to exhibit a random motion.

Please read on the Concept of Force and Motion here.

The image below shows the random motion exhibited by gaseous particles:

Particles of Gases - Len Academy
Structure of Gaseous Particles

From the above image, if you guessed that the atoms or particles of a gas are widely spread apart, then you are very correct.

The cohesive forces binding gaseous particles are non existent, thus they always keep moving. As a result of their constant motion, gases will always constitute the entire atmosphere.

Please read on Liquids and their Characteristics here.

Gases can be easily compressed. This means that the gaseous particles (or atoms) can be brought close to one another by the application of pressure.

Consider the instance below:

When you continuously fill a gas into a ballon, you will observe that the pressure of the gas inside the ballon becomes greater than what the ballon can hold.

When the elastic limit of the ballon is reached, it bursts open; and the gases eventually escapes into the atmosphere.

Please read on the Atmosphere here.

When you fill a gas into a container; and allow such container to cool beyond a certain temperature (inside a freezer), the particles of the gas inside the container will become compressed to liquid and eventually to solids.

Do you know we can have liquid oxygen and solid carbon(IV)oxide?

Please read on the Refrigerator and how it works here.


Characteristics of Gases

  1. They have no definite shape and volume.
  2. Their particles are widely spread apart, hence they are very compressible.
  3. Their particle possesses a high energy for movement and rotational motion, hence they escape into the atmosphere when released.
  4. They diffuse (move from the region of higher concentration to that of lower concentration) and effuse (move through tiny holes) rapidly.
    Please read on Graham's Law of Diffusion here.
  5. They have low densities.
  6. When we increase the tightness of their container, the pressure of gas increases.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Chemistry

The only letters that failed to appear on the periodic table are letters:

J     &     Q

Gold and copper are the only two non-silvery colored metals.

Please read some interesting facts about gold here

Copper is the only metal that is naturally antibacterial. This is why you would see some children utilize 'copper' water bottles in schools

Water actually freezes faster when it’s warm than when it’s cold

Most element in their pure state exists physically in different forms. For instance, pure carbon can exist as both diamond and graphite. This phenomenon is called allotropy.

Please read on modification of Dalton's atomic theory here.

If you pour a handful of salt into a full glass of water, the water level will go down rather than overflowing the glass.

Similarly, if you mix half liter of water and half litre of alcohol, the total volume of the liquid will be les than one litre


NOTABLE POINTS IN Chemistry