Topics in ChemistryElements, Compounds and Mixtures with their Characteristics Salts and Types of Salt in Chemistry Mixtures and Separation of Mixtures Mixtures and Separation of Mixtures - part 2 Mixtures and Separation of Mixtures - part 3 Physical and Chemical Change explained with their Differences Electrolysis, Electrolyte, Electrode, Anode, Cathode and Ionic Theory Diffusion - Grahams Law of diffusion and Importance of Graham's Law of Diffusion Metals - Physical Properties of Metals Daltons Atomic Theory and its Modifications Periodic table: Classification of Elements in the Periodic Table Emperical Formula - Explanation and Worked Examples of Emperical Formula Organic Chemistry - Hydrocarbon, Carbon and its Compounds Explanation, Worked Examples and Differences between Molecular Mass and Molar Mass Gold: Interesting Facts about Gold Matter, Mass, Weight and Characteristics of Solids, Liquids, Gases Acids - Definitions of Acids, Physical and Chemical properties of Acids
Academic Questions in Chemistry
The following substances will sublime EXCEPT _____.
Which of the following is a state of matter?
The ideal way of separating a mixture of blood is through _____.
Which of the following separation technique is used to separate an insoluble solid that sediments in a liquid?
A _____ mixture is said to be uniform all through.
The reaction involving an acid and a base is termed _____.
Which of the following is NOT a type of salt?
The only metal that exist as liquid at room temperature is _____.
Recall that a mixture is made up of two or more substances physically combined.
In this article we will continue from where we previously stopped. In case you wish to read the Part one of this topic; it's present here.
Centrifugation involves the use of a device called centrifuge to separate the lighter portions of a mixture from the denser portions through the spinning action of the centrifuge.
Note: Blood is a mixture and its components can be separated via centrifugation.
Blood is considered a mixture because it is composed of liquid plasma and solid cells.
Below is an image of separated blood components via the process of centrifugation.
Image Credit: Microbiology Notes
Using the above diagram as a reference, the test tubes containing the blood are inserted into the centrifuge.
The centrifuge begins to spin/rotate when it's switched on; and this is allowed to continue for about 5 to 10 minutes.
On bringing out the test tubes from the centrifuge, two different layers will be observed. These are:
- The lower layer composed of solid cells that had sedimented.
- The upper layer containing the plasma will be seen above it.
Next, the plasma can then be carefully decanted from the test tube. (Please see sedimentation and decantation in the part 1 of this article).
Types of Centrifugation
Below are some of the types of centrifugation:
- Differential Pelleting or Differential Centrifugation
- Isopynic Centrifugation
- Density Gradient Centrifugation
- Rate-Zonal Density-Gradient Centrifugation
Matter exists in 4 states. These are:
On heating a solid, it changes to liquid. If we continue heating, the liquid will eventually change to gas. This is the usual sequence.
However, in sublimation, the heated solid does not pass through the liquid phase; instead, it changes to gas directly.
Sublimation can be defined as a process whereby a heated solid changes directly to gas without passing through the liquid phase.
A sublimate is a substance that changes directly from solid to gas or from gas to solid.
Such solids are said to sublime.
The diagram below shows sublimation via a solid that sublimes. (Ammonium Chloride or NH4Cl):
Image Credit: Brainly
Examples of solids that sublime are:
- Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl)
- Iodine Crystals
- Solid Carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) or Dry Ice
Sublimation is used to separate two salts (or solids) in which one sublimes and the other does not.
An an instance, a mixture of common salt (NaCl) and iodine crystals (I) can be separated via sublimation.
On heating, NaCl remains in the heated dish or container while the iodine crystals sublimes; (that is; it changes into a gas and may be collected afterwards as the sublimate).
Distillation is a technique used to separate two or more miscible liquid that have different boiling points.
Note: The boiling points of the different liquids are not usually at a close range.
Think of miscible liquids as two or more liquids that can dissolve in each other (or one another).
The mixture of water and ethanol is a typical example of a mixture that can be separated via distillation. This is so because they are both miscible and have different boiling points.
The mixture of water and acetone are also miscible and can be separated via distillation.
Water boils at 100oC
Ethanol boils at 78oC
The image below shows the separation of water and ethanol via distillation:
Image Credit: Quora
Steps involved in Distillation
Think of a distillate as a liquid collected from the process of distillation after it has been passed through a condenser.
When we have two liquids of different boiling points; the liquid with a lesser boiling point is said to be more volatile while that with a higher boiling point is said to be less volatile
Distillation can also be used to:
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Amazing facts in Chemistry
The only letters that failed to appear on the periodic table are letters:
Gold and copper are the only two non-silvery colored metals. Please read some interesting facts about gold here
Copper is the only metal that is naturally antibacterial. This is why you would see some children carry copper water bottles to school
Water actually freezes faster when it’s warm than when it’s cold
Most element in their pure state exists physically in different forms. For instance, pure carbon can exist as both diamond and graphite. This phenomenon is called allotropy.
Please read on modification of Dalton's atomic theory here.
If you pour a handful of salt into a full glass of water, the water level will go down rather than overflowing the glass.
Similarly, if you mix half liter of water and half litre of alcohol, the total volume of the liquid will be les than one litre
NOTABLE POINTS IN Chemistry