Topics in ChemistryChemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Compounds in Chemistry: Characteristics of Compounds Types of Mixture: Homogenous and Heterogeneous Mixtures Mixtures: Characteristics of Mixtures Physical Properties of Matter explained with Examples Chemical Properties of Matter explained with Examples Differences between Physical and Chemical Change Ionic Theory and Electrolysis Physical and Chemical Properties of Acids States of Matter: Characteristics of Solids Liquid State of Matter: Characteristics of Liquids Gaseous State of Matter: Characteristics of Gases Molar Mass, Worked Examples and Differences with Molecular Mass Elements: Characteristics of Elements Salts and Types of Salt in Chemistry Mixtures and Separation of Mixtures Mixtures and Separation of Mixtures - part 2 Mixtures and Separation of Mixtures - part 3
Academic Questions in Chemistry
2NH4+(aq) + Ag+(aq) -> 2H4AgN
The equation above represents _____ acid.
A. Svante Arrhenius'
C. Gilbert Lewis'
E. Sir Isaac Newton's
F. Albert Einstein's
According to Brønsted Thomas Martin Lowry, an acid is defined as _____.
A. Any substance that produces hydrogen ion (H+) when dissolved in water
B. A substance that accepts electron pair in a chemical reaction
C. A substance that gives out hydronium ion (H3O+) when dissolved in water
D. A substance that donates a proton in a chemical reaction
E. A substance that reacts with a base to form salt and water
F. A substance whose hydrogen ions (H+) are displaced after a reaction with metals higher in the activity, reactivity or electrochemical series
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of chemical change?
Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning a physical change _____.
The following substances will sublime EXCEPT _____.
Which of the following is a state of matter?
The ideal way of separating a mixture of blood is through _____.
Which of the following separation technique is used to separate an insoluble solid that sediments in a liquid?
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Recall that a mixture is made up of two or more substances physically combined.
In this article we will continue from where we previously stopped. In case you wish to read the Part one of this topic; it's present here.
Centrifugation involves the use of a device called centrifuge to separate the lighter portions of a mixture from the denser portions through the spinning action of the centrifuge.
Note: Blood is a mixture and its components can be separated via centrifugation.
Blood is considered a mixture because it is composed of liquid plasma and solid cells.
Below is an image of separated blood components via the process of centrifugation.
Using the above diagram as a reference, the test tubes containing the blood are inserted into the centrifuge.
The centrifuge begins to spin/rotate when it's switched on; and this is allowed to continue for about 5 to 10 minutes.
On bringing out the test tubes from the centrifuge, two different layers will be observed. These are:
Next, the plasma can then be carefully decanted from the test tube. (Please see sedimentation and decantation in the part 1 of this article).
Types of Centrifugation
Below are some of the types of centrifugation:
Matter exists in 4 states. These are:
On heating a solid, it changes to liquid. If we continue heating, the liquid will eventually change to gas. This is the usual sequence.
However, in sublimation, the heated solid does not pass through the liquid phase; instead, it changes to gas directly.
Sublimation can be defined as a process whereby a heated solid changes directly to gas without passing through the liquid phase.
A sublimate is a substance that changes directly from solid to gas or from gas to solid.
Such solids are said to sublime.
The diagram below shows sublimation via a solid that sublimes. (Ammonium Chloride or NH4Cl):
Examples of solids that sublime are:
Sublimation is used to separate two salts (or solids) in which one sublimes and the other does not.
An an instance, a mixture of common salt (NaCl) and iodine crystals (I) can be separated via sublimation.
On heating, NaCl remains in the heated dish or container while the iodine crystals sublimes; (that is; it changes into a gas and may be collected afterwards as the sublimate).
Distillation is a technique used to separate two or more miscible liquid that have different boiling points.
Note: The boiling points of the different liquids are not usually at a close range.
Think of miscible liquids as two or more liquids that can dissolve in each other (or one another).
The mixture of water and ethanol is a typical example of a mixture that can be separated via distillation. This is so because they are both miscible and have different boiling points.
The mixture of water and acetone are also miscible and can be separated via distillation.
The image below shows the separation of water and ethanol via distillation:
Steps involved in Distillation
Think of a distillate as a liquid collected from the process of distillation after it has been passed through a condenser.
When we have two liquids of different boiling points; the liquid with a lesser boiling point is said to be more volatile while that with a higher boiling point is said to be less volatile
Distillation can also be used to:
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Amazing facts in Chemistry
The only letters that failed to appear on the periodic table are letters:
Gold and copper are the only two non-silvery colored metals. Please read some interesting facts about gold here
Copper is the only metal that is naturally antibacterial. This is why you would see some children carry copper water bottles to school
Water actually freezes faster when it’s warm than when it’s cold
Most element in their pure state exists physically in different forms. For instance, pure carbon can exist as both diamond and graphite. This phenomenon is called allotropy.
Please read on modification of Dalton's atomic theory here.
If you pour a handful of salt into a full glass of water, the water level will go down rather than overflowing the glass.
Similarly, if you mix half liter of water and half litre of alcohol, the total volume of the liquid will be les than one litre
NOTABLE POINTS IN Chemistry