Commerce

Principle of Marketing: Packaging as a marketing mix

len Alfred Ajibola - Sun, 12th April, 2020 @ 11:59 AM

Topics in Commerce

Contract of Employment: Terms of employment contract Principle of Marketing: People as a marketing mix and their importance Principle of Marketing: Positioning as a marketing mix Principle of Marketing: Packaging as a marketing mix Elements of promotion in marketing mix Principle of Marketing: Promotion as a marketing mix Principle of Marketing: Place as a marketing mix Principle of Marketing: Price as a marketing mix Principles of Marketing: The seven principles of marketing mix Factors necessary for division of labour Disadvantages of division of labour Advantages of division of labour Concept of Outbound Marketing Inbound Marketing explained Types of production in commerce Commerce: Definitions and Scopes of Commerce Differences between balance of trade and balance of payments Balance of payment deficit and balance of payment surplus Disadvantages of foreign trade Divisions of foreign trade


Academic Questions in Commerce

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In commerce, which of the following is false with regards to a commodity?

  • A. A commodity must always have a market value

  • B. Rendered services are also instances of commodities

  • C. Products applicable to commodities can be bought or sold with money

  • D. A commodity must be standardized

  • E. A commodity must be usable upon delivery

  • F. Commodities can be traded in the futures market

Whatever is being marketed must always provide value to its potential consumers.

  • A. True

  • B. False

Which of the following is not a branch of marketing?

  • A. Merchandising

  • B. Promotions

  • C. Forex

  • D. Search Media Optimization

  • E. Social Media Optimization

  • F. Copywriting

Which of the following is not a characteristics of commerce?

  • A. The only aim of commerce is to make profit

  • B. It is a discontinuous process after profit had been made

  • C. It is accompanied with challenges and uncertainties

  • D. It is 100% business and economic activity

  • E. Transaction processes are always involved in commerce

  • F. It connects the process of production and marketing

Which of the following is not a function of commerce?

  • A. Unnecessary in times of emergencies like earthquakes and wars

  • B. Facilitates mass production of goods

  • C. Influences transportation network within and outside a state

  • D. Attempts to satisfy human needs and wants

  • E. Improves the standard of living

  • F. Acts as an online business link between buyers and sellers

One of the following is a form of division of labour.

  • A. Agonistic division of labour
  • B. Antagonistic division of labour
  • C. Mutualistic division of Labour
  • D. Advanced division of labour
  • E. Solitary division of labour
  • F. Occupational division of labour

A place where people buy homogenous goods in large quantities is called _____.

  • A. Wholesaler's Market

  • B. Goods Market

  • C. Products Market

  • D. General Market

  • E. Commodity Market

  • F. Forex Market

Any activity aimed at getting people interested in a company's product or service is termed _____.

  • A. Commerce

  • B. Economics

  • C. Financial Accounting

  • D. Marketing

  • E. Production

  • F. Distribution


Packaging as a marketing mix:

Have you wondered why various organizations have their respective dress codes as a part of their ethical protocol? In this instance, there is a saying that goes thus: 'first impression matters a lot'. In another instance, others would say: 'the way you dress is the way you would be addressed'. In fact these popular sayings confirms the concept of packaging.

With regards to the above paragraph, the way and manner at which a product is packaged and presented will go a long way towards stimulating the interest of its consumers.


Simply put, product packaging is referred to as the external looks of a product. It may also be termed as branding.

You can read on promotion as a principle of marketing mix here.


Although, a product's content remains the most important goal of production, however, the product's packaging act as a means of enticement towards the product's content. For instance, a friend of mine who works a caterer made a cake for a friend. He collected N2,000 for the job. However, he was shocked after he saw the exact cake he had made carefully packaged and posted on facebook by the one who gave him the job. To summarize the long story, the cake was negotiated at N30,000 while my friend was paid only N2,000; all thanks to packaging.

Please read on the concept of the seven principles of marketing here.


Product packaging requires that those who work as product marketers dress in a certain way and style that gives them a much presentable and professional look. In fact, you may have noticed that the majority of marketers nowadays are ladies. This is so because ladies tend to find a way of constantly packaging themselves, thus attracting more consumers or customers towards their products. (Men do package themselves too).

Please read on marketing and branches of marketing here.


Interestingly, when we take a careful look at a company's sales representative, we should be able to tell the organization in which the person works with; and that's an attribute of packaging.

Meanwhile, understand that packaging goes beyond the marketers' dress sense. It encomprises the followings:

  • The company's location.
    Please read on place as a principle of marketing mix here.
  • The external and internal appearance of the company's offices.
  • The designs of the company's brochures, identity cards and so on.
  • Quality of the company's website.
    You can read on inbound marketing here.
  • Fluency and eloquence in the manner of speech of the company's representative or staff. We often see this instance in media presenters.
  • Official telephone lines and customized emails.
  • Quality of the company's customer service. An instance of this is seen in certain restaurants located in the exotic parts of a state. Such restaurant sell their foods and drinks at higher prices. For instance, a 35cl bottle of Coca-Cola may sell for N500 instead of the usual N100.
    Please read on price as a principle of marketing mix here.

In summary, we hope you can see some elements of packaging in Len Academy's website through the organization and arrangement of our educational articles.

You can check out the 'test your knowledge' segment of Len Academy here.

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Amazing facts in Commerce

With Amazon Smile, you can donate 0.5 percent of your purchases to a charity of your choosing

Check it out here

The brewery, Sankt Gallen in Japan, produces a beer called Un Kono Kuro from elephant's dung

North Korea and Cuba are the only countries in the world where you can't buy Coca-Cola

Amazon is an e-commerce website launched in 1995. It did not make any profit for its first seven years.

Amazon's first profit was in 2003. Its founder 'Jeff Bezos' is the richest man in the world as at 2018/2019


NOTABLE POINTS IN Commerce

prepayment is somewhat an opposition to deferred payment. This is true because the concept of prepayment oversees that the buyer makes payment beforehand and must wait to enjoy whatever had been paid for after some significant time had elapse.

In short, you can think of a prepayment as 'paying in advance'. An example is when a tenant pays in advance to a landlord for an apartment yet to be used. Another example is an online payment for items yet to be received.

Deferred payment is defined as a future payment eventually made after a buyer receives goods and services without an initial payment. Think of it as the: 'buy now, pay later' type of transaction.

From the perspective of the seller, the money yet to be received after the supply of goods or services is called an accrued revenue, unrealized revenue or accrued assets.

According to the buyer, the money yet to be paid after the delivery of goods or services is called an accrued expense. For instance, a company that owes employees salary can be said to have an accrued expense.

Please read more on deferred payment here

For an item to be considered a commodity, it must satisfy three conditions. These are:

  1. It must be standardized. In the case of agricultural commodities, they must be in their unprocessed state.

  2. It must be usable upon delivery

  3. The price of a commodity item must vary.

A commodity market can therefore be defined a place where people buy and sell homogenous goods in large quantities.

Homogeneous goods are products that essentially have the same physical characteristics (or qualities) as similar products from other brands.

It is noteworthy to state that foreign currencies, data and bandwidth have all been included as part of today's commodity markets. In this regard, a commodity market will always have it's own set of rules and regulations.

Please read more n commodity market here

Marketing is a broad field of study. Below are branches or divisions of marketing:

  • Advertising

  • Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

  • Merchandising

  • Branding

  • Promotions

  • Copywriting

  • Social Media Optimization (SMO)

  • Event planning

  • Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

  • Graphic Design

  • Internet Marketing

Marketing is defined as any activity or process aimed at getting people interested in a company’s product or service.

The processes utilized in marketing can take place via posters, public relations campaigns, handbills, social media, radio and television, buses, walls along the streets, the internet or just anywhere.

Below are some of the branches of marketing:

  • Advertising

  • Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

  • Merchandising

  • Branding

  • Promotions

  • Copywriting

  • Social Media Optimization (SMO)

  • Event planning

  • Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

  • Graphic Design

  • Internet Marketing

Please read more on marketing here