What is Marketing? Branches of Marketing

len Alfred Ajibola - Tue, 12th February, 2019 @ 08:58 AM

Topics in Commerce

Historical background of commerce in Nigeria Disadvantages of barter system Contract of Employment: Terms of employment contract Principle of Marketing: People as a marketing mix and their importance Principle of Marketing: Positioning as a marketing mix Principle of Marketing: Packaging as a marketing mix Elements of promotion in marketing mix Principle of Marketing: Promotion as a marketing mix Principle of Marketing: Place as a marketing mix Principle of Marketing: Price as a marketing mix Principles of Marketing: The seven principles of marketing mix Factors necessary for division of labour Disadvantages of division of labour Advantages of division of labour Concept of Outbound Marketing Inbound Marketing explained Types of production in commerce Commerce: Definitions and Scopes of Commerce Differences between balance of trade and balance of payments Balance of payment deficit and balance of payment surplus

Academic Questions in Commerce

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In commerce, the concept of paying in advanced is termed _____.

  • A. Advanced payment

  • B. Up payment

  • C. Forward payment

  • D. Prepayment

  • E. Uphill payment

  • F. Adpayment

In commerce, the concept of 'buy now, pay later' is termed _____.

  • A. Unadventurous payment

  • B. Buy on credit payment

  • C. Deferred payment

  • D. Postponed payment

  • E. Owed payment

  • F. Future payment

In commerce, which of the following is false with regards to a commodity?

  • A. A commodity must always have a market value

  • B. Rendered services are also instances of commodities

  • C. Products applicable to commodities can be bought or sold with money

  • D. A commodity must be standardized

  • E. A commodity must be usable upon delivery

  • F. Commodities can be traded in the futures market

Whatever is being marketed must always provide value to its potential consumers.

  • A. True

  • B. False

Which of the following is not a branch of marketing?

  • A. Merchandising

  • B. Promotions

  • C. Forex

  • D. Search Media Optimization

  • E. Social Media Optimization

  • F. Copywriting

Which of the following is not a characteristics of commerce?

  • A. The only aim of commerce is to make profit

  • B. It is a discontinuous process after profit had been made

  • C. It is accompanied with challenges and uncertainties

  • D. It is 100% business and economic activity

  • E. Transaction processes are always involved in commerce

  • F. It connects the process of production and marketing

Which of the following is not a function of commerce?

  • A. Unnecessary in times of emergencies like earthquakes and wars

  • B. Facilitates mass production of goods

  • C. Influences transportation network within and outside a state

  • D. Attempts to satisfy human needs and wants

  • E. Improves the standard of living

  • F. Acts as an online business link between buyers and sellers

One of the following is a form of division of labour.

  • A. Agonistic division of labour
  • B. Antagonistic division of labour
  • C. Mutualistic division of Labour
  • D. Advanced division of labour
  • E. Solitary division of labour
  • F. Occupational division of labour

What is Marketing?

Have you wondered why most companies are always in search of marketers?

The simple reason is because they need someone to create awareness about their products and services (and also sell such product).

Any activity or process aimed at getting people interested in a company’s product or service is termed marketing.

Please read on the definitions and scope of commerce here.

Marketing processes can take place through posters, public relations campaigns, handbills, on social media, radio and television, in a bus, on the streets, on the internet or just anywhere.

The art of marketing a product require skills, techniques and knowledge of the product to be marketed. For this reason, marketing may also be defined as the science of meeting the needs of customers or consumers.

You can read on consumer right and protection here.

The consumer or customer targeted through marketing can be an individual user, clients, partners, a company, several people or the entire society. The product marketed can be virtual, (for instance, a software), hard goods, an idea/concept or a variety of services. The point is:

Marketing is a data driven science in the sense that the marketer or company gathers the necessary data relevant to customers' need.

From the collected data, a company will be able to manufacture or create a quality and valuable product, while also delivering them in an effective manner; and at an appreciable price (with regards to the customer’s value and the desired profit to the producer).

Please read on production here.

It is noteworthy to state that marketing involves inbound and outbound activities

  • Inbound Marketing Activities

Inbound activities of marketing covers the aspect of making discoveries on the wants and needs of potential or target customers.

Please read on scale of preference and opportunity cost here.

The result of inbound marketing is the fact that the customers (or potential customers) are automatically segmented, and that’s a good thing.

Segmentation of customers will help increase the product’s focus (since the target customers are already segmented or known), which in most cases provide quality and value for the marketed product.

You can also analyze your competitors, while also using the information obtained from this analysis to your own advantage.

Note: Most inbound activities are not seen by the public.

Please read on the detailed explanation and example of inbound marketing here.

  • Outbound Marketing Activities

Outbound marketing activities include all the activities that provide information to the market. The information provided to the market include the availability of products/services and their prices.

Outbound marketing also includes those activities that will put the product into the market (which is always competitive); thus encouraging people to buy such product(s).

Activities that may promote the purchase of such product include:

  1. Creating promotions for the product.
  2. Advertising.
    Please read more on advertising here.
  3. Providing warrantee.
  4. Providing customer support before and after purchase.
  5. Social Media Marketing.
  6. Search Engine Optimization (SEO).
  7. Posters and Handbills.
  8. Public Relations Campaigns (PRC) and so on.

Please read on the detailed explanation and examples of outbound marketing here.

The principles or (P's) of marketing is a term that explains how marketing interacts with each stage of a business. We have seven of such principles. They include:

  1. Product
  2. Price
  3. Place
  4. Promotion
  5. Packaging
  6. Positioning
  7. People
  8. Please read more on the Principles of Marketing here.


Branches of Marketing

Below are some the branches within the broad field of marketing:

  • Advertising
  • Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
  • Merchandising
  • Branding
  • Promotions
  • Copywriting
  • Social Media Optimization (SMO)
  • Event planning
  • Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
  • Graphic Design
  • Internet Marketing

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Amazing facts in Commerce

According to research, the problem isn't the amount of food produced; the actual problem is the distribution of these foods. In this regard, we actually produce enough food to feed everyone on earth, but their distribution remains an underlying problem


With Amazon Smile, you can donate 0.5 percent of your purchases to a charity of your choosing

Check it out here

The brewery, Sankt Gallen in Japan, produces a beer called Un Kono Kuro from elephant's dung

North Korea and Cuba are the only countries in the world where you can't buy Coca-Cola

Amazon is an e-commerce website launched in 1995. It did not make any profit for its first seven years.

Amazon's first profit was in 2003. Its founder 'Jeff Bezos' is the richest man in the world as at 2018/2019

Notable points in Commerce

The theory of international trade is guided by the principle of comparative cost. This principle was propounded by David Richards.

The principle of comparative cost states that a country should specialize in the production of goods and services in which they have a greater comparative advantage or the least comparative disadvantage.

Below is an instance on the principle of comparative cost.

Now, let us assume we have two countries producing and exporting rice and beans respectively.

  • On a daily basis, If country A produces 100 grams of rice and 300 grams of beans daily and country B produces 50 grams of rice and 150 grams of beans, then according to this principle, country A has an advantage over country B with regards rice and beans production; but better still, country A has a greater comparative advantage in the production of beans.


From the above instance, it can also be said that country B is at a disadvantage with regards to the production of rice and beans. Infact, it has a bigger comparative disadvantage with regards to beans production.

The point to note here is this: A country utilizing the principle of comparative cost will always produce quality goods and services at a cheaper cost.

No single country manufactures all the goods and services in our world. This implies that every country of the world relies on certain goods and services imported (or brought in) from other countries.

Foreign trade is defined as the exchange of goods, services and capital between two or more countries.

Foreign trade is also termed as international trade.

Please read more on foreign trade here

Division of labour can be defined as the act of splitting job process into a number of different processes such that each process is done by a different person or group of persons.

Through the process of division of labour, one worker may constantly perform a specific aspect of the job and as a result, may become specialized in that area.

The result of specialization in the different department of a job will imply the production of goods with better quality.

Please read on division of labour here

Forms of division of labour relates the various ways through which division of labour may be carried out.

Take for instance, within a country, one state may choose to specialize in the production of a cars while another specializes in a different area, let's say agriculture.

Below are the forms of division of labour

  • Complex division of labour

  • Occupational division of labour

  • Geographical division of labour


Please read more on the forms of division of labour here.

Balance of Trade can be defined as the total value of goods imported and exported by a country during a specific period; usually yearly or annually.

Balance of trade can be either positive, negative or zero

  • A positive balance of trade implies that a country exports more goods than its imports. China as a country is likely to have a positive balance of trade since it exports a variety of goods to other countries.

  • A negative balance of trade is often considered as an unfavorable balance of trade since the country's importation exceeds its exportation. Nigeria (as at 2018) is likely to have a negative balance of trade.

  • A zero balance of trade is reached when imports equal exports.

Please read on balance of trade and balance of payments here.