Basic Technology

Ceramics: Types of Ceramics

len Alfred Ajibola - Sat, 30th May, 2020 @ 13:10: PM

Topics in Basic Technology

Belt Drives: Types of belt drive Ceramics: Types of Ceramics Advantages and Disadvantages of Chain drives Len Academy Questions for Basic Technology JSS3, 2nd Term, 2020 Len Academy Question for Basic Technology, JSS3, 2nd Term, 2020, Part 2 Belt and Pulley Drives: Types of Belt in Belt Drives Electromechanical Energy: Parts of the Refrigerator and how they operate Chain Drive, Types and Classifications What are Belt Drives? Advantages and Disadvantages of Belt Drives Type of Lines in Technical Drawings Len Academy questions for Basic Technology, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy questions for Basic Technology JSS2, 2nd Term, Part 2 Maintenance, Types of Maintenance Hardwood and Softwood - Characteristics and Examples What are Ceramics? Characteristics of Ceramics


Academic Questions in Basic Technology

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Inverted toothed chain drive - Len Academy

With regards to chain drives, the diagram above is a/an _____ chain.

  • A. Roller

  • B. Silent

  • C. Leaf

  • D. Flat-top

  • E. Detachable

  • F. Acceleration

A type of chain drive commonly used in bicycles is the _____ chain.

  • A. Roller

  • B. Silent

  • C. Leaf

  • D. Flat-top

  • E. Detachable

  • F. Acceleration

A chain drive consists of an endless chain running over two _____.

  • A. Hooks

  • B. Spikes

  • C. Spokes

  • D. Sprockets

  • E. Hinges

  • F. Danes

Which is the most economical of all power transmitting drive mechanisms?

  • A. Pulley drive

  • B. Gear drive

  • C. Chain drive

  • D. Belt drive

  • E. Thread drive

  • F. Fabricated drive

Which of the following is false concerning  drive mechanisms in machines?

  • A. Pulley drives do not require a means of power transmission

  • B. Gear drive is a means of power transmission

  • C. Chain drive is a means of power transmission

  • D. Belt drive is a means of power transmission

  • E. The drive mechanisms of machines accomplishes it's function via a rotational motion

  • F. Drive mechanisms results into a mechanical movements of machines via power transmission

Arrow head lines - Len Academy

The lines above are used at the end of dimension lines?

  • A. True

  • B. False

Which of the following is not a type of maintenance?

  • A. Fixated

  • B. Overhaul

  • C. Predictive

  • D. Reinforcement

  • E. Periodic

  • F. Corrective

Which of the following is incorrect concerning preventive maintenance?

  • A. It is considered to be the best form of maintenance

  • B. Immunization is a form of preventive maintenance

  • C. Worn out parts may be discovered when preventive maintenance is carried out

  • D. Preventive maintenance is defined as the repairs carried out on an equipment or object after a correct prediction of an impending fault

  • E. A person who services his car monthly practices preventive maintenance (even though the car functions properly)

  • F. The main goal of preventive maintenance is to stop a device from breaking down suddenly

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Types of Ceramics:

Ceramics are simply defined as inorganic and non metallic materials. They can be classified into two types. These are:

  1. Traditional Ceramics
  2. Advanced Ceramics

Please read on an Introduction to Ceramics and it's characteristics here.


Traditional Ceramics

They are made completely from clay. We can categorize them into the followings:

  1. Earthenware: These are clay fired at a fairly low temperature of about 900°C – 1,150°C. The result is the formation of a partially porous and rough object. They are shown below:

    Earthenware Ceramics - Len Academy

    As a fix for it's porosity, the resulting product is covered with a waterproof, paint-like substance or 'powdered glass substance' suspended in water. (This substance is called glaze). It is then fired a second time.
    Delft and Majolica are examples of earthenware.

  2. You can read on Hardwood and Softwood, Characteristics and Examples here.


  3. Stoneware: They are clay fired at a temperature of about 1,250°C until they become vitrified, that is; glass-like. The image below shows the glass-like ceramics (stonware):

    Stoneware Ceramics - Len Academy

    Stoneware is non-porous and if glazes were to be used, then it's only for decorative purposes.
    The products of stoneware are strong and durable materials which can be used as cooking pots, jugs and plates.

  4. You can read on Maintenance and Types of Maintenance here.


  5. Porcelain: They are made from kaolin clay, glass, granite, feldspar and water.

    Please read on the Types of Rocks here.

    Once made into desired shape, they are fired in a kiln between the temperatures 1,200°C – 1,450°C. It may be decorated with glazes by additional firing.

    Note: By characteristics, they are very hard, translucent white ceramic. The image below shows a Procelain:

    Procelain Ceramics - Len Academy

    Procelain is sometimes referred to as fine china because it had it's origin in China.
    They are used as vaces, jugs and plates.

Test you knowledge on various academic subjects here.


Advanced Ceramics

They are based on metallic oxides and non-oxides (or combinations of both). Generally, they are not clay based.

The main oxides used in advanced ceramics are aluminium oxide (Al2O3), Magnesium oxide (MgO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2).

The non-oxides are mainly carbides, borides and silicides; for example, boron carbide (B4C) and silicon carbide (SiC).

Advanced Ceramics - Len Academy

In order to produce an advanced ceramics, the oxides are thoroughly grounded to become fine powder. The fine powder is then shaped into a green body fired at a very high-temperature (1,600–1,800°C) in an oxygen-free atmosphere; (and allowing the tiny grains of each ceramic components to join together. This aformentioned process called sintering).

The end result is a very hard, durable and corrosion-resistant product.

Note: Advanced ceramics are used in metal production and electronics.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Basic Technology

Rubber bands - Len Academy

Rubber bands last longer when refrigerated

Lighter was invented before matches

Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner was credited with the invention of lighter in 1826 while the match was made 3 years later

Volkswagen group of companies own some of the top cars of the world. These are Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Ducati, Lamborghini and Porsche


NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Technology

The diagram below shows the various types of line in technical drawing, their description and general application:

Type of Lines - Len Academy

Please read more on the types of line in technical drawing here

Preventive maintenance is carried out routinely on a device even though no apparent fault may be present on such device.

The goal of preventive maintenance as the name suggest is to prevent a sudden breakdown on a device or equipment.

As an instance, a person who services his or her car monthly even though the car is still able to function correctly is said to be carrying out preventive maintenance on the car.

In the course of a preventive maintenance, worn out parts may be discovered and replaced as soon as possible. Also, there may be a change of oil while other little adjustments may also be carried out.

We can even carry out preventive maintenance on our body to prevent certain diseases. For this reason, some persons have discovered cancerous cells in their body through regular medical checkup; and were able to kill such cells before they become malignant.

As a matter of fact; immunization is a form of preventive maintenance.

Please read more on immunization here.

Please read on maintenance and types of maintenance here

Hardwood - Len Academy

Hardwoods are derived from angiosperms. They show the following characteristics:

  1. They usually have a higher density than softwood. Balsa is an exception.

  2. They are usually more expensive than softwood.

  3. They grow at a slower rate than softwood.

  4. Hardwood trees shed their leaves in certain times of the year.

  5. Hardwood are more fire resistant than softwood.

  6. The leaves of hardwood trees are evergreen.

  7. They are used for making quality furniture (in terms of strength). They are also suitable for decking in buildings.

  8. Hardwood trees always have divided trunks which are sometimes referred to as a dendritic form.

  9. In terms of price, hardwood are usually more expensive than softwood.

Examples of hardwood include iroko, ash, beech, alder, teak, birch, mahogany, maple, oak, balsa and walnut.

Please read more on hardwood vs softwood here

Ceramics are refractory. They also require a very high amount of heat and subsquent cooling to be formed.

Being refractory means that they are capable of withstanding a variety of abuses like high temperatures and chemical attacks.

Ceramics are generally made by taking clay from the ground and mixing it with water. It is then shaped into any form and fired inside an oven (called kiln) at a very high temperature. They may then be decorated with a waterproof, paint-like substances called glazes.

Please read more on ceramics here

Ceramics may have constrasting physical and chemical properties (or characteristics); but in general,

  1. They have high melting points.

  2. They are heat resistant.

  3. They can be very hard with great strength; although a few are brittle or soft; for example, graphite.

  4. They are durable (last for a long time).

  5. Most are electrical insulators (cannot conduct electricity) but; graphite is an electrical conductor.

  6. They are chemically unreactive or inert.

  7. They are not easily oxidized.

  8. Most are non-magnetic.