Topics in Basic ScienceResources from living things Resources from animals Importance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Microorganisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs
Academic Questions in Basic Science
Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.
With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.
A. International bodies
Disease causing organisms are termed _____.
E. Disease carriers
F. All the above options are correct
____ is formed from a reaction utilizing oxygen and glucose in the mitochondria of cells.
Which of the following statement is false concerning carbohydrates?
A. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only
B. Carbon has the highest ratio of the constituent elements of carbohydrates
C. All carbohydrates are sugars
D. Fructose is a carbohydrate
E. Natural milk contains lactose and it's a carbohydrate
F. Fatty foods contains high calories of energy when compared to the same quantity of carbohydrate foods
Which of the following is a class of food?
Brachiation is a specialized form of movement exhibited by _____.
A. Human beings
_____ is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs.
B. Duo Pedalism
C. Double Pedalism
D. Dual Pedalism
Mass and weight aren't the same thing. Mass is considered as one of the attributes of matter. This is true because matter is defined as anything that has mass and occupy space.
Please read on the concept of matter here.
From the above introduction, we can conclude that matter has two main attributes or characteristics. These are:
Mass is the amount of matter a body or anything has. Think of it as the entire composition of anything.
For instance, everything you are composed of (from the top of your hair to your toe nails, including your cells, tissues, organs and systems) will account for your mass. For this reason, your mass will be significantly different from that of a newly born child.
Matter will always take up space no matter how small it is. This is true because some instances of matter can be microscopic. Examples of microscopic forms of matter include bacteria, protists and viruses.
Please read more on protists here.
Note: A space completely void of matter is referred to as a vacuum. A vacuum environment barely exist naturally, rather they are prepared for medical and scientific reasons.
Mass is the amount of matter in anything and it will always remain constant (the same) for that specific thing all over the universe. Consider the instance below:
Let's assume that one mole of copper has a mass 100g. If you travelled with this copper (one mole) to another country or to the moon or to planet jupiter, it will always have that same mass of 100g. This is true because it's the same amount of copper (one mole).
Please read on molecular mass with some worked calculations here.
The above instance is true because pure copper will always have the (exact) same type of atomic composition (and that's copper atoms).
You can read on Dalton's atomic theory and its modifications here.
It is noteworthy to state that gravitational force will always act on mass. In fact, it is the action of gravity on the mass of a body that gives rise to weight. You can therefore think of weight as 'gravity acting on mass'.
Below is an image that show the concept of mass and weight:
Weight is a function of gravity. This means that gravity accounts for our weight.
Weight can be defined as the force exerted on a body by gravity. Think of gravity as the force that pull things downwards.
In comparison, one mole of copper will have different weights on the moon, earth and planet jupiter respectively. This is so because the moon and planets have got different gravitational pull acting upon them.
Jupiter has a stronger gravitational force than earth. Similarly, earth has a stronger gravity than the moon. This is a fact because: 'the bigger a body, the larger its force of gravity'.
Based on the above explanations, one mole of copper will weigh more in jupiter and least on the moon. However, it's mass will always remain constant (the same) regardless the location.
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Amazing facts in Basic Science
Of all animals, mosquitoes hold the record of killing most humans annually. They are responsible for the deaths of 725,000 - 1,000,000 persons yearly
Antibiotics fights and kills bacteria. However, they do nothing to a virus
All insects have six legs. However, dragonfly has six legs but can't walk
The chin is defined as the protruding part of the face below the mouth, formed by the apex of the lower lip. It is shown below:
Interestingly, humans are the only animals with chin
Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water
Tomatoes and Avocados are fruits, not vegetables
Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.
Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell
Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack
The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6
Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear
NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science
Matter is composed of particles which can be:
Tightly packed together (as seen in solids).
Loosely packed together (as seen in liquids).
Completely separated (as seen in gases).
The movement of the particles of matter is a function of the overall kinetic energy present in them. You can think of kinetic energy as energy in motion.
An increase in the particles' vibrational, rotational or translational motion will imply an increase in temperature while a decrease in the particles motion (vibrational, rotational and translational) will mean a decrease in temperature. Based on this knowledge, we can therefore define temperature as the measure of the average kinetic energy possessed by the particles of matter.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a score derived from a set of standardized tests developed to measure a person's cognitive abilities in relation to their age group.
IQ may also be defined as the ratio of mental age (MA) to chronological age (CA) multiplied by 100.
Below are some formulas pertaining Intelligence Quotient:
IQ = MA x 100 ÷ CA
MA = Mental age
CA = Chronological age
IQ above 100 = Brilliance
IQ that equals 100 = Average
IQ below 100 = Below Average
Among all organisms in the universe, the human brain is the most developed. This highly developed brain present in humans is the biggest factor that makes them unique from every other organism on earth.
According to research, the more folds a brain has, the more intelligent the organism possessing it will become. To this end, humans have brains with the greatest number of folds (or bumps) called gyri and grooves (or indentations) called sulci.
Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.
Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:
The waste block drainages hence resulting to flooding, especially during the rainy seasons.
Please read on erosion here.
They generate bad smells which can be dangerous to health.
They constitute nuisance and eyesore.
They become homes to various disease causing organisms.
Please read on vectors of diseases here.
Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:
Animal product waste
Please read the explanations on the classification of wastes here