Topics in GeographyEnvironmental geography explained with its branches Igneous rock explained with its types and textures Characteristics of Igneous Rock What are Sedimentary Rocks? Formation and Types of Sedimentary Rock Characteristics of Sedimentary Rock Types and Characteristics of Metamorphic Rock Physical geography explained with its branches Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Classification and types of planets with their characteristics Planets of the solar system explained with their characteristics Functions of the Atmosphere Layers of the Atmosphere Solar System in Geography Composition of the Atmosphere Human geography explained with its branches What are metamorphic rocks? Formation of metamorphic rock?
Academic Questions in Geography
Which of the following is not a branch of environmental geography?
A. Physical Geography
C. Political Ecology
D. Environmental Perception
E. Landscape Studies
F. Energy and Resource Geography
Sandstone is an example of _____ .
A. Sandy soil
B. Loamy soil
C. Clay soil
D. Igneous rock
E. Sedimentary rock
F. Metamorphic rock
Which of the following isn't an example of metamorphic rock?
Which of the following statements is false concerning metamorphic rock?
A. The are less dense than igneous and sedimentary rocks
B. They can be foliated or non foliated
C. They are crystalline in nature
D. They have a more coarse texture than their protolith
E. They may be formed from an older metamorphic rock
F. They are characterized with precious metals and stones
Earth's distance from the sun is approximately _____ million kilometers.
Which of the following is not a branch of physical geography?
A. Economic Geography
B. Religious Geography
C. Social Geography
D. Resource Geography
E. Settlement Geography
F. Industrial Geography
Water resource geography is a branch under physiography.
With regards to ozone, which of the following is incorrect?
A. Ozone is a triatomic molecule
B. Ozone layer aids in preventing excess ultraviolet radiation from reaching the earth
C. Ozone is a natural greenhouses gas
D. Ozone comprises of oxygen molecules only
E. Ozone layer brings about a global warming on earth
F. Ozone is present in the stratosphere
The solar system is defined as a system comprising the sun, all the planets that revolve around it including their moons, the comets, meteoroids, asteroids and interplanetary medium.
From the above definition, we can list the contents of the solar system into the followings:
The image below gives us an idea on the concept of the solar system.
The interplanetary medium (IPM) are small scattered particles that exists between the planets and other constituent bodies of the solar system. It's consists mainly of gas and dust.
The sun (which is over 300,000 times bigger than the earth) is a star. In fact, it is an average sized star. This will imply that there are other stars which are bigger than the sun.
The closest star to the sun is called Proxima Centauri; with a distance of about over 4.3 light years away from it.
The sun is the greatest source of light and heat in the universe. For this reason, it becomes the ultimate source of energy on earth; and the reason for life's existence on earth.
The solar system is contained in the universe. The universe is unimaginably big, such that not all of it can be seen. An object that moves through the space of the universe will likely do so forever.
Our galaxy (called the Milky Way) contains over 220 billion stars; and it’s only one of the billions of galaxies in the observable universe.
All the planets (including most of the planet’s satellite) and asteroids revolve round (orbit) the sun. The orbital plane around the sun on which the planets revolve or orbit is called an ecliptic.
Below is a diagram showing the solar system (including the ecliptic and each planet's satellite):
The average distance between the earth and the sun is about 149.6 million kilometers. It will take the earth 365 one-quarter days (or 1 year) to make a complete orbit (or revolve) round the sun. This process is referred as the revolution of the earth.
The revolution of the earth is responsible for the seasonal changes we experience here (on earth). That is; rainy and dry seasons in Nigeria and other parts of Africa. Understand that other continents have got their respective seasons; for instance; we have the spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons in Europe. Similarly, the United States of America have got spring, summer, fall and winter as the respective seasons.
A satellite is a body that revolves round (or orbit) the earth or another planet. It can be natural or artificial. The moon is the natural satellite of planets in the solar system.
It is important to understand that the planets, moons, stars and other elements in space are held in place by gravity.
Thirteen (13) planets make up the solar system. Nine of these are categorized (considered as the official planets) while four are uncategorized.
The 9 categorized planets beginning from the closest to the sun are:
Below are the 4 uncategorized planets:
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Amazing facts in Geography
Lake Baikal is the deepest freshwater lake in the world. It is located in Siberia, and has a depth of 5,315 feet (1,620 meters)
River Nile is the world's longest river, reaching a length of 6,853km. It runs through the borders of 11 African countries. These are Egypt, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi and Eritrea
The deepest place on Earth is the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean. It has a dept of 11,034 meters (or 36,201 feet)
Japan has recorded the most earthquakes and is thereby considered as the world's most earthquake-prone country
The planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune have no solid surfaces, but are rather made up of gases. For this reason, humans can never stand on them
Burg Khalifa is the tallest building in the world (as at 2023). It is situated in Dubai and stands at over 2,700 feet
Pepto Bismol-colored Lake Hillier is a pink colored lake present in Australia
Mount Everest is the highest point on earth with a height of 8,849 meters (29,032 feet). It is located between Nepal and Tibet, an autonomous region of China.
Mountain Everest is a symbol of relationship between Nepal and Tibet, and was named in the nineteenth century after George Everest, a former Surveyor General of India
A day on planet venus is longer than a year. This is so because it takes venus 243 'earth days' to spin round its axis (rotation), but takes 225 'earth days' to go around the sun (revolution).
In geography, understand that a day is reached when the planet makes a full spin or rotation round it's axis. However, a year is reached when a planet revolves fully around the sun
The Four Corners is a location in the United States of Ameria where one can stand in four states simultaneously (at the same time). The states are: Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.
On the Four Corners, a person stands on the southwestern corner of Colorado, southeastern corner of Utah, northeastern corner of Arizona, and northwestern corner of New Mexico at once.
Notable points in Geography
Planets can be categorized based on their composition. These include:
1. Terrestrial or Rocky Planets: They are mercury, venus, earth and mars. They are called terrestrial or rocky planets for the following reasons:
They have a rocky and compact surface.
They have no rings around them.
They have a few natural satellites.
They rotate slowly around their axis.
2. Gas or Jovian Planets: They include jupiter, saturn, uranus and neptune. They have the following features:
They are called jovian planets because they are bigger in size when compared to earth.
They are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium gas, hence the name 'gas planets' or 'gas giants'.
They rotate rapidly.
They have many satellites.
They have rings around them.
The following rules are required for a body to become classified (or regarded) as a planet:
It must orbit the sun.
It does not orbit another planet. This means that it must not be a satellite.
It must have sufficient mass which accounts for its self-gravity.
It must assume a nearly round shape.
Earth's atmosphere is extremely important for the survival of all its inhabitants. As a student, it is important you comprehend how the above functions of the atmosphere support life. The explanations below give credence to this fact.
When one moves further away from earth, the atmosphere becomes thinner until it disappears into the outer space. There is no atmosphere in space. For this reason, astronauts will always wear a spacesuit while carrying along their oxygen gas masks and canisters when in space.
People living on very high altitudes will likely experience a reduced amount of oxygen in the atmosphere. Such people survive because their bodily organs become adapted to survive in such conditions.
On mountain everest for instance, mountain climbers will need to carry oxygen canisters because lesser amount of oxygen is present on this mountain.
The interface forming the boundary between two atmospheric layers are always named with a 'pause' at its end; for instance;
Tropopause: This is the interface or boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere.
Stratopause: Interface between the stratosphere and mesosphere.
Mesopause: Interface between the mesosphere and ionosphere.
Ionopause: Interface between the ionosphere and thermosphere.
The atmosphere surrounding the earth is layered. Each layer has its own characteristics although the boundaries between them are not clearly defined.
The image below shows the different layers of the atmosphere: