Geography

Layers of the Atmosphere

len Alfred Ajibola - Sat, 28th December, 2019 @ 7:19 AM

Topics in Geography

Environmental geography explained with its branches Igneous rock explained with its types and textures Characteristics of Igneous Rock What are Sedimentary Rocks? Formation and Types of Sedimentary Rock Characteristics of Sedimentary Rock Types and Characteristics of Metamorphic Rock Physical geography explained with its branches Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Classification and types of planets with their characteristics Planets of the solar system explained with their characteristics Functions of the Atmosphere Layers of the Atmosphere Solar System in Geography Composition of the Atmosphere Human geography explained with its branches What are metamorphic rocks? Formation of metamorphic rock?


Academic Questions in Geography

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following isn't an example of metamorphic rock?

  • A. Schist

  • B. Quartzite

  • C. Gabbro

  • D. Marble

  • E. Slate

  • F. Serpentinite

Which of the following statements is false concerning metamorphic rock?

  • A. The are less dense than igneous and sedimentary rocks

  • B. They can be foliated or non foliated

  • C. They are crystalline in nature

  • D. They have a more coarse texture than their protolith

  • E. They may be formed from an older metamorphic rock

  • F. They are characterized with precious metals and stones

Earth's distance from the sun is approximately _____ million kilometers.

  • A. 147

  • B. 85

  • C. 40

  • D. 220

  • E. 309

  • F. 400

Which of the following is not a branch of physical geography?

  • A. Economic Geography

  • B. Religious Geography

  • C. Social Geography

  • D. Resource Geography

  • E. Settlement Geography

  • F. Industrial Geography

Water resource geography is a branch under physiography.

  • A. True

  • B. False

With regards to ozone, which of the following is incorrect?

  • A. Ozone is a triatomic molecule

  • B. Ozone layer aids in preventing excess ultraviolet radiation from reaching the earth

  • C. Ozone is a natural greenhouses gas

  • D. Ozone comprises of oxygen molecules only

  • E. Ozone layer brings about a global warming on earth

  • F. Ozone is present in the stratosphere

The atmosphere makes the followings possible on earth except _____.

  • A. Photosynthesis

  • B. Respiration

  • C. Rain

  • D. Ultraviolet rays

  • E. Global communication

  • F. Weather

The interface forming a boundary between the stratosphere and mesosphere is termed _____.

  • A. Mesoface

  • B. Mesopause

  • C. Mesostart

  • D. Stratoface

  • F. Stratopause

  • F. Stratostart


Layers of the Atmosphere:

The atmosphere surrounding the earth is layered. Each layer has its own characteristics although the boundaries between them are not clearly defined.

Recall that the atmosphere is held close to earth by gravity and it consists of a mixture of gases, microscopic organisms and other tiny particles like dust.

Please read on the composition of the atmosphere here.

You can read on the concept of gravity here.


The image below shows the different layers of the atmosphere:

Layers of the Atmosphere - Len Academy


Beginning from the layer closest to the earth, the layers of the atmosphere are explained below:


1. Troposphere

From the surface of the earth, the troposphere is about (0 - 13 miles) or (0 - 20 kilometers) high.

Functionally, the troposphere is easily penetrated by the sun’s heat into earth's surface. It also prevents the escape of heat reflected from the ground of the earth into the outer space. This function of the troposphere is vital for the survival of earth's organisms.

Helicopters and light aircrafts will normally fly in the troposphere.


The troposphere also contains water vapour which makes it the point of weather development.

Please read on the functions of the atmosphere here.

Note: All human beings live on the surface of the earth and not inside it.


The interface forming the boundary between two atmospheric layers are always named with a 'pause' at its end; for instance;

  • Tropopause: This is the interface or boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere.

Other similar boundaries includes:

  • Stratopause: Interface between the stratosphere and mesosphere.
  • Mesopause: Interface between the mesosphere and ionosphere.
  • Ionopause: Interface between the ionosphere and thermosphere.
  • Thermopause and so on.

These terms will be appropriately used throughout our explanations.

 

2. Stratosphere

This layer of the atmosphere extends from the tropopause. It's about (13 - 31 miles) or (20 - 50 kilometers) high.

Due to the reduced atmospheric turbulence in this region, planes prefer to fly here.

Please read on the advantages and disadvantages of air transport here.


Some of the oxygen's tri-atomic molecule (O3) termed ozone is present here. Ozone prevents the harmful ultraviolet radiations from reaching the earth, giving rise to the concept of ozone layer.

The chemical chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) can bring about ozone depletion in this layer of the atmosphere.

Please read on waste management and types of waste here.

 

3. Mesosphere

This layer begins from the stratopause at a height of 31 - 58 miles or 50 - 80 kilometers. It is characterized with the lowest of temperatures when compared to other layers of the atmosphere. The largest amounts of clouds are also present in the mesosphere.

Note: Aircraft and spacecraft do not fly within this region.

 

4. Thermosphere

The thermosphere extends from the mesopause at a height of 50 - 440 miles or 80 - 700 kilometers. It is considered as the densest layer of the atmosphere.

The thermosphere comprise of the ionosphere, a layer that conducts electricity. The ions in the ionosphere are created from the particles of sunlight and those of space.

You can read on the concept of ions and electrolytes here.

Gases like hydrogen, helium and oxygen are found in the thermosphere.

Please read on gases and their characteristics here.

 

5. Exosphere

The main gas found here is hydrogen (H2).

The exosphere commences from the thermopause at a height of 440 - 6,200 miles or 700 - 10,000 kilometers.

Some of the earth’s artificial satellite are found in this region of the atmosphere.

Please read more on the solar system here.

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Amazing facts in Geography

Pepto Bismol-colored Lake Hillier is a pink colored lake present in Australia

Pepto Bismol-colored Lake Hillier - Len Academy

Mount Everest is the highest point on earth with a height of 8,849 meters (29,032 feet). It is located between Nepal and Tibet, an autonomous region of China.

Mountain Everest is a symbol of relationship between Nepal and Tibet, and was named in the nineteenth century after George Everest, a former Surveyor General of India

A day on planet venus is longer than a year. This is so because it takes venus 243 'earth days' to spin round its axis (rotation), but takes 225 'earth days' to go around the sun (revolution).

In geography, understand that a day is reached when the planet makes a full spin or rotation round it's axis. However, a year is reached when a planet revolves fully around the sun

The Four Corners is a location in the United States of Ameria where one can stand in four states simultaneously (at the same time). The states are: Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.

On the Four Corners, a person stands on the southwestern corner of Colorado, southeastern corner of Utah, northeastern corner of Arizona, and northwestern corner of New Mexico at once.

The longest street in the world is Yonge street in Toronto Canada. It has a length of 1,895,807.232 meters or 1,178 miles

With regards to size, the sun is so big when compared to earth. In fact, a million earth would fit inside of it

Pumice - Len Academy

Pumice is a rock that floats on water

There are more stars in space than there are grains of sand on a beach

Africa on the globe hemispheres - Len Academy

Africa is the only continent with land in all four hemispheres of the globe

Venus is the only planet that spins in a clockwise direction


NOTABLE POINTS IN Geography

The interface forming the boundary between two atmospheric layers are always named with a 'pause' at its end; for instance;

  • Tropopause: This is the interface or boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere.

  • Stratopause: Interface between the stratosphere and mesosphere.

  • Mesopause: Interface between the mesosphere and ionosphere.

  • Ionopause: Interface between the ionosphere and thermosphere.

The atmosphere surrounding the earth is layered. Each layer has its own characteristics although the boundaries between them are not clearly defined.

The image below shows the different layers of the atmosphere:

Layers of the Atmosphere - Len Academy

Please read more on the layers of the atmosphere here.

The Solar System - Len Academy

The average distance between the earth and the sun is about 149.6 million kilometers. It will take the earth 365 one-quarter days (or 1 year) to make a complete orbit (or revolve) round the sun. This process is termed the revolution of the earth.

The revolution of the earth is responsible for the seasonal changes we experience here (on earth). In Nigeria and Africa at large, these are the rainy and dry seasons. In Europe, these are spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons. Similarly, the United States of America have got the spring, summer, fall and winter seasons respectively.

The Solar System - Len Academy

The solar system is defined as a system comprising the sun, all the planets that revolve around it including their moons, the comets, meteoroids, asteroids and interplanetary medium.

In summary, the solar system comprises of the followings:

  • Sun

  • Stars

  • Planets

  • Moons or Satellites

  • Comets

  • Meteoroids

  • Asteroids

  • Interplanetary Medium (IPM)

Please read more on the solar system here

The atmosphere consists of gases that surround the entire surface of the spherical shaped earth. The compositions of these gases are as follows:

Composition of the Atmosphere -Len Academy

  • Nitrogen (N2): 78.09%
  • Oxygen (O2): 20.95%
  • Argon (Ar): 0.93%
  • Carbon(IV)oxide (CO2): 0.036%
  • Neon (Ne): 0.002%
  • Krypto (Kr): 0.001%
  • Helium (He): 0.0005%
  • Xenon (Xe): 0.00009%
  • Hydrogen (H2): 0.00005%
  • Water Vapour: Variable

All of these gases (listed above) make up the atmosphere and are generally called air.

Please read more on the atmosphere and it's composition here