Basic Science

Waste Management: Types of Waste

len Alfred Ajibola - Tue, 12th February, 2019 @ 10:23 AM

Topics in Basic Science

Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates - Characteristics of Primates Effects of Improper Waste Management Waste Management: Causes of Waste Concept of Mass and Weight Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Macro-nutrients) Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Micro-nutrients) Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases Vectors - Examples of Vectors, Vector borne Organisms and the Diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs Immunization, Processes involved in immunization and its importance Food: Carbohydrates and Sugars Uniqueness of Man: Unique Characteristics of Man Waste Management: Types of Waste Matter: Concept of Matter


Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Biomedic wastes are also referred to as _____ wastes.

  • A. Hospital

  • B. Recyclable

  • C. Metabolic

  • D. Green

  • E. Radioactive

  • F. Electronic

Sweat and urine are best considered as _____ waste.

  • A. Non-Biodegradable

  • B. Refuse

  • C. Recyclable

  • D. Metabolic

  • E. Green

  • F. Radioactive

_____ is defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.

  • A. Waste collecting and processing

  • B. Waste processing and collecting

  • C. Waste recycling and control

  • D. Waste control and recycling

  • E. Waste treatment

  • F. Waste Management

Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning mass and weight?

  • A. Mass is the amount of matter in a body

  • B. The element hydrogen has the smallest mass

  • C. You will weigh more on planet jupiter than earth

  • D. Weight is a function of gravity

  • E. Mass and Weight have different Standard International (S.I) Units

  • F. None of the above

Which of the following statement is false concerning matter?

  • A. Anything considered as matter must either have mass or occupy space

  • B. Air is an example of matter

  • C. Plasma is a state of matter

  • D. Chemistry is considered as the study of matter and the changes they undergo

  • E. Vacuum is a space completely void of matter

  • F. Matter will always take up space no matter how small or invincible it is to the eyes

Which of the following is not matter?

  • A. Atom

  • B. Molecule

  • C. Ion

  • D. Bacterium

  • E. Virus

  • F. None of the above

The ultimate source of energy is _____.

  1. Plant
  2. Sun
  3. Food
  4. Water
  5. Air
  6. Earth

The speed of wind is measured with a wind vane.

TRUE or FALSE

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Waste Management:

One of the ways to eradicate diseases in our world today is to put in place an efficient and effective waste management system.

Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.

Please read on the Effects of Improper Waste Management here.

In a country like Nigeria, millions of tons of waste are produced yearly, but the fact is: 'less than 20% of these wastes are recycled' (as at February 12, 2019). This is one reason why lots of waste are visible on the major roads and various areas of residence. These wastes also litter on roadside, in landfills, gutters and ditches. This is generally bad for the society because:

Note: Wastes are generated from homes, factories, market places, hospitals, schools, industries and many other places. Apart from the fact that it’s an eyesore, it will adversely affect national growth and development.

Please read on the Functions of Government here.


Types of Waste

Wastes can be classified into various types. Some of these classifications include:

  1. Biodegradable Waste: These are wastes that can be broken down by the actions of living organisms. Examples include various food materials like yam, rice, beans and orange.
    You can read on the Problems of Agriculture in Nigeria here.

  2. Non-Biodegradable Waste: They are wastes that cannot broken down by the actions of living organisms. Examples are nylons and plastics.
  3. Refuse: They are simply considered as solid wastes. We would normally put them in the dustbin (refuse bin) before they are eventually discarded. Examples are sachets, tins, papers, solid food materials, nylons and so on.
    Please read on the Causes of Waste in a Society here.

  4. Sewage: These are generally considered as liquid wastes. Sewage are often channeled into their appropriate disposal systems via pipes. Examples include waste water (from cooking, bathing, washing and so on), urine and human excreta.
  5. Recyclable Waste: These are waste materials that can be processed into new and useful products. The utilization of recyclable waste are of cost benefits to factories that process them.
    In Nigeria, we see various persons on dump sites in search of recyclable wastes; which they will sell off to manufacturing factories. Examples of recyclable waste include, iron, aluminum, plastics, tin, batteries and computer accessories.
    Please read more on Production here.

  6. Electronic Waste: These are wastes that are associated with various electronic devices like monitors, televisions, keyboards, CPUs and so on. Electronic wastes are also referred to as e-waste.
    Please read the Internet of Things here.

  7. Green Waste: Green wastes are biological in nature and will include any waste that can ferment to form compost. For this reason, they can serve as fertilizers to plants.
    Products that comprise green waste will include fresh leaves and wastes from the kitchen; both of which can be broken down by micro-organisms.
    Please read the Agricultural Terms and Meanings here.

  8. Biomedical Waste: They may also be referred to as hospital waste. They include any waste that contain (or will eventually contain) an infectious substance. They also include laboratory and hospital generated wastes from various test and treatments. Examples of biomedical wastes include syringes, infusion kits, blood, bandages and so on.
    You can read on the Layers of an Artery here.

  9. Metabolic Waste: These are waste that are generated from various metabolic activities in living organisms. Examples are sweat, urine, carbon(IV)oxide, oxygen (in plants) and so on.
    It is important to state that feces is not a metabolic waste since it isn't a product of metabolism. (Think of metabolism as the processes that concerns the breaking down and building up of substances in organisms). To this end, feces are simply considered as undigested materials that weren't absorbed into the body system in the first place.
    Please read on the Basic Characteristics of Living Organisms here.

  10. Radioactive Waste: These wastes can be very dangerous since they contain radioactive materials.
    A waste is considered to be radioactive if they contain radionuclides at a concentration greater than their clearance values as stipulated by a country's regulatory authority.
    Radioactive products are generated via nuclear fusion and nuclear fission reactions; thus are regarded as waste products from both reactions (nuclear fusion and fission). By-products of nuclear power are typical examples of radioactive wastes in our world.
    Radioactive waste can be classified into the followings:
    (a) Very Low-Level Waste (VLLW).
    (b) Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste - Short Lived (LILW-SL).
    (c) Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste - Long Lived (LILW-LL).
    (d) High Level Waste (HLW).
  11. Chemical Waste: These are wastes generated from harmful chemicals (from chemical producing industries).
    Chemical wastes are required to be carefully disposed by the factories that manufacture them since some can be toxic.
    Examples of chemical waste include batteries, reagents, oils, solvents, substances containing lead and mercury, Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), acids, bases, salts and so on.
    Please read on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Acids here.

  12. Animal Product Waste: These are wastes generated or harvested from agricultural animals (livestock) with the exception of meat from the animal's muscle. Examples include blood, milk, eggs and fats.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Basic Science

Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.

Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell

Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack

The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6

Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear

🐈 Cats 🐈 are unable to taste sweet things

🍎 Apples 🍎 actually float on water. Other fruits that float on water include 🍋 lemons, 🍌 bananas, 🍐 pears, and 🍊 oranges

Rain water contains vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient that keeps the blood cells and neurones healthy. It also assist in building the DNA (a genetic material present in the cell's nucleus). Vitamin B12 also aid in the prevention of megaloblastic anemia which makes people weak and tired

Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your ✋ palm ✋

Goats have rectangular pupils in their eyes.

Think of the pupil as a hole located in the centre of the iris within of the eye.

Note: To get an idea of an iris; 'when one is said to have blue eyes', it's because the iris is blue

Among all land animals, 🐘 Elephants 🐘 have the longest gestation period.

They stay pregnant for 22 months before giving birth to their young


NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science

Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.

Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:

Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:

  • Biodegradable waste

  • Non-Biodegradable waste

  • Refuse

  • Sewage

  • Recyclable waste

  • Electronic waste

  • Green waste

  • Biomedical waste

  • Metabolic waste

  • Radioactive waste

  • Chemical waste

  • Animal product waste

Please read the explanations on the classification of wastes here

The African Star Apple is a seasonal fruit that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It's fondly called African Cherry, Agbalumo or Udara in some parts of Nigeria.

African Star Apple, Cherry, Agbalumo, Udara - Len Academy

Below are some benefits of the African Star Apple:

  • It contains high amount of vitamin C

  • It contains a high amount of calcium

  • It contains high amount of potassium

  • It is a powerful antioxidant

  • It aids in weight reduction

  • It contains a high amount of iron

  • Its leaves, fruits and seeds are medicinal

  • It aids digestion and prevents vomiting

Please read more on the African Star Apple here

Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.

Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.

Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.

The breast milk contains the disaccharide Lactose.

Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.

In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.

Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).

  • Maltose = Glucose + Glucose

  • Lactose = Glucose + Galactose

  • Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose

Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose

Polysaccharides are complex sugars. These are what we often eat whenever we eat carbohydrates.

We have four types of polysaccharides namely:

  1. Starch
  2. Glycogen
  3. Chitin
  4. Cellulose

 

  • Starchy foods include rice, cassava and yam.

  • Glycogen is stored in the human liver; as a result of the joining of many glucose molecules.

  • Chitin is a major component of insect and anthropod's skeleton.

  • Cellulose is a major component of a plant's cell wall. They cannot be digested when eaten by humans; hence they function as roughages.

Roughages are not classified as one the classes of food in humans. This is due to the fact that they aren't digested. They will rather facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon); and for this reason, they can be very useful in treating constipation.

Please read more on carbohydrates here