Basic Science

Waste Management: Types of Waste

len Alfred Ajibola - Tue, 12th February, 2019 @ 10:23 AM

Topics in Basic Science

Resources from living things Resources from animals Importance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1 Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Microorganisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Drugs explained with their types and side effects

Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following diseases is associated with river blindness?

  • A. Anthrax

  • B. Lawnmower Disease

  • C. Onchocerciasis

  • D. Devil's Crunch

  • E. Trypanosomiasis

  • F. Tularemia

The vector for yellow fever is _____.

  • A. Aedes Mosquito

  • B. Female Anopheles Mosquito

  • C. Plasmodium

  • D. Flavivirus

  • E. Black Fly

  • F. Bacillus Anthracis

The bones of the head and face make up the skull. These bones are _____ in number.

  • A. 12

  • B. 14

  • C. 16

  • D. 18

  • E. 20

  • F. 22

Bacteria are not a constituent of our environment.

  • A. True

  • B. False

Below are types of drugs. Which of these is considered as pain killers?

  • A. Stimulants

  • B. Depressants

  • C. Opiods and Morphine Derivatives

  • D. Hallucinogens

  • E. Anabolic Steroids

  • F. Cannabinoids

Which of the following statement is false concerning drugs?

  • A. Drugs can be inhaled

  • B. Drugs can be injected directly into the bloodstream 

  • C. Drugs can be eaten

  • D. Drugs exist exclusively in the forms of tablets and syrups

  • E. Drugs can be placed under the tongue

  • F. Drugs can be taken with water or another liquid

Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.

  • A. True

  • B. False

With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.

  • A. International bodies

  • B. Antilators

  • C. Antibodies

  • D. Antigens

  • E. Antibiotics

  • F. Antidotes

Waste Management:

One of the ways to eradicate diseases in our world today is via an efficient and effective waste management system.

Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.

Please read on the effects of improper waste management here.

In a country like Nigeria, massive tons of waste are produced yearly. However, less than 20% of these wastes are recycled (as at February 12, 2019). This is one reason why a variety of wastes are visible on some major roads and areas of residence within the Lagos metropolis. These wastes also litter on roadside, in landfills, gutters and ditches. Apparently, this is generally bad for the society because:

Meanwhile, recall that wastes are generated from homes, factories, markets, hospitals, schools, industries and many other places. Apart from the fact that it’s an eyesore, these wastes will adversely affect national growth and development.

Please read on the functions of government here.

Types of Waste

Wastes can be classified into various types. Some of these classifications include:

  1. Biodegradable Waste: These are wastes that can be broken down by the actions of living organisms. Examples include various food materials like yam, rice, beans and orange.
    You can read on the problems of agriculture in Nigeria here.

  2. Non-Biodegradable Waste: They are wastes that cannot broken down by the actions of living organisms. Examples are nylons and plastics.

  3. Refuse: They are simply considered as solid wastes. We would normally put them in the dustbin (refuse bin) before they are eventually discarded. Examples are sachets, tins, papers, solid food materials, nylons and so on.
    Please read on the causes of waste in a society here.

  4. Sewage: These are generally considered as liquid wastes. Sewage are often channeled into their appropriate disposal systems via pipes. Examples include waste water (from cooking, bathing, washing and so on), urine and human excreta.

  5. Recyclable Waste: These are waste materials that can be processed into new and useful products. The utilization of recyclable waste are of cost benefits to factories that process them.

    In Nigeria, we see various persons on dump sites in search of recyclable wastes which they will sell off to manufacturing factories. Examples of recyclable waste include, iron, aluminum, plastics, tin, batteries and computer accessories.
    Please read more on production here.

  6. Electronic Waste: These are wastes that are associated with various electronic devices like monitors, televisions, keyboards, CPUs and so on. Electronic wastes are also referred to as e-waste.
    You can read on the internet of things here.

  7. Green Waste: Green wastes are biological in nature and will include any waste that can ferment to form compost. For this reason, they can serve as fertilizers to plants.

    Products that comprise green waste will include fresh leaves and wastes from the kitchen. Meanwhile, understand that these green wastes can be broken down by micro-organisms.
    Please read the agricultural terms and meanings here.

  8. Biomedical Waste: They may also be referred to as hospital waste. They include any waste that contain (or will eventually contain) an infectious substance. They also include laboratory and hospital generated wastes from various test and treatments. Examples of biomedical wastes include syringes, infusion kits, blood, bandages and so on.
    You can read on the layers of an artery here.

  9. Metabolic Waste: These are waste that are generated from various metabolic activities in living organisms. Examples are sweat, urine, carbon(IV)oxide and oxygen (in plants).

    It is important to state that feces is not a metabolic waste since it isn't a product of metabolism. You can think of metabolism as the processes that concerns the breaking down and building up of substances in organisms. To this end, feces are simply considered as undigested materials that weren't absorbed into the body system in the first place.
    Please read on the basic characteristics of living organisms here.

  10. Radioactive Waste: These wastes can be very dangerous since they contain radioactive materials.

    A waste is considered to be radioactive if they contain radionuclides at a concentration greater than their clearance values as stipulated by a country's regulatory authority.

    Since radioactive products are generated via nuclear fusion and nuclear fission reactions, they are therefore regarded as waste products from both reactions (nuclear fusion and fission respectively). By-products of nuclear power are typical examples of radioactive wastes in our world.

    Radioactive waste can be classified into the followings:

    • Very Low-Level Waste (VLLW).

    • Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste - Short Lived (LILW-SL).

    • Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste - Long Lived (LILW-LL).

    • High Level Waste (HLW).

  11. Chemical Waste: These are wastes generated from harmful chemicals (from chemical producing industries).

    Chemical wastes are required to be carefully disposed by the factories that manufacture them since some can be toxic.

    Examples of chemical waste include batteries, reagents, oils, solvents, substances containing lead and mercury, Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), acids, bases, salts and so on.
    Please read on the physical and chemical properties of acids here.

  12. Animal Product Waste: These are wastes generated or harvested from agricultural animals (livestock) with the exception of meat from the animal's muscle. Examples include blood, milk, eggs and fats.

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Amazing facts in Basic Science

Red-Billed Quelea - Len Academy

The most common wild bird in the world is native to Africa, and it's the red-billed quelea with a population estimated to be around 1.5 billion

Of all animals, mosquitoes hold the record of killing most humans annually. They are responsible for the deaths of 725,000 - 1,000,000 persons yearly

Antibiotics fights and kills bacteria. However, they do nothing to a virus

All insects have six legs. However, dragonfly has six legs but can't walk

The chin is defined as the protruding part of the face below the mouth, formed by the apex of the lower lip. It is shown below:

Chin - Len Academy

Interestingly, humans are the only animals with chin

Cranberries - Len Academy

Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water

Tomatoes and Avocados are fruits, not vegetables

Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.

Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell

Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack

The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6

Notable points in Basic Science

We have six classes of food. These are:

  1. Carbohydrates

  2. Proteins

  3. Fats and Oils

  4. Vitamins

  5. Mineral Salts

  6. Water

In humans, roughages are not classified as one of the classes of food. This is so because they aren't digested. Instead, roughages facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon); and for this reason, they can become useful in treating constipation.

Food refers to anything that is ingested by living organisms, giving them nutrients and thus enabling them to stay alive.

As an instance, 99% of a panda's diet is bamboo. In this case, bamboo is considered as food to a panda since it provides a source of nutrient and keeps it alive. This is shown in the image below:

Panda eating bamboo - Len Academy

Please read more on food here

The only process in nature that actively enriches our atmosphere with oxygen is photosynthesis. Every other process like respiration, burning and combustion takes away oxygen from it. In addition, they introduce carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) into the atmosphere.

Photosynthesis is also the only process that takes away carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) from the atmosphere.

Photosynthesis is defined as a process by which green plants manufacture food by utilizing carbon(IV)oxide and water in the presence of sunlight.

Oxygen is given off as a by-product of photosynthesis. In regards to this, it is recommended that each person plants a tree.

Matter is composed of particles which can be:

  1. Tightly packed together (as seen in solids).

  2. Loosely packed together (as seen in liquids).

  3. Completely separated (as seen in gases).

The movement of the particles of matter is a function of the overall kinetic energy present in them. You can think of kinetic energy as energy in motion.

An increase in the particles' vibrational, rotational or translational motion will imply an increase in temperature while a decrease in the particles motion (vibrational, rotational and translational) will mean a decrease in temperature. Based on this knowledge, we can therefore define temperature as the measure of the average kinetic energy possessed by the particles of matter.

You can read on the concept of matter here

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a score derived from a set of standardized tests developed to measure a person's cognitive abilities in relation to their age group.

IQ may also be defined as the ratio of mental age (MA) to chronological age (CA) multiplied by 100.

Below are some formulas pertaining Intelligence Quotient:

  • IQ = MA x 100 ÷ CA

  • MA = Mental age

  • CA = Chronological age

  • IQ above 100 = Brilliance

  • IQ that equals 100 = Average

  • IQ below 100 = Below Average