Agricultural Science

Problems of Agriculture in Nigeria

len Alfred Ajibola - Tue, 12th March, 2019 @ 08:28 AM

Topics in Agricultural Science

Clay soil explained with its types and characteristics Loamy soil explained with its characteristics Sandy soil: Characteristics of sandy soil and ways to make it fertile Soil explained with its composition Types of agricultural practices Crop rotation explained Benefits of crop rotation Differences between subsistence and commercial farming Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics What is commercial farming? Types of commercial farming Characteristics of commercial farming Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural machines and their uses Causes of soil erosion Ways to prevent soil erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples

Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

The ideal pH for the optimum growth of most agricultural crop is between _____.

  • A. 1 – 3.5

  • B. 4 – 5.5

  • C. 6 – 7.5

  • D. 8 – 9.5

  • E. 10 – 11.5

  • F. 12 – 13.5

People who go about their lives by raising and herding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats are said to practice _____.

  • A. Pastoralism

  • B. Pasturalism

  • C. Herding

  • D. Herdsmen

  • E. Animalism

  • F. Anime Farming

The act of giving birth in pigs is called _____.

  • A. Calving

  • B. Piggery

  • C. Kidding

  • D. Farrowing

  • E. Calfing

  • F. Pigging

Which of the following is not a vegetable?

  • A. Cashew

  • B. Cocumber

  • C. Tomatoes

  • D. Carrot

  • E. Squash

  • F. Eggplant

All plants are crops.

  • A. True

  • B. False

In agriculture, macronutrients are essential nutrients required by plants. Which of the following is not a macronutrient?

  • A. Zinc

  • B. Sulphur

  • C. Calcium

  • D. Phosphorus

  • E. Potassium

  • F. Magnesium

Which of the following is false concerning micronutrients?

  • A. They are non-essential nutrients

  • B. They are required by plants in minute quantities

  • C. Iron is a micronutrient

  • D. Chlorine is a micronutrient

  • E. Copper is a micronutrient

  • F. Boron is a micronutrient

_____ is a term that describes the biological, chemical and cultural control tactics employed to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable.

  • A. Integrated Pest Management

  • B. Integral Pest Management

  • C. International Pest Management

  • D. Inclusive Pest Management

  • E. Imbibed Pest Management

  • F. Inclusion Pest Management

Agriculture in Nigeria:

Before the discovery of oil in Nigeria, the agricultural sector was a major source of foreign exchange. It was also the largest employer of labour in the country. Even now, it remains the largest employment means to Nigerians considering the fact that it is the major source of income in numerous rural communities.

Note: Regardless the above fact, Nigeria is still known to import agricultural products like rice, chicken, turkey and fish (as at 2019).

The reasons behind agricultural underproduction in Nigeria is the main point of this article.

Below are some of the agricultural problems in Nigeria:


  • Lack of mechanized farming

Mechanized farming is the process of using agricultural machinery on agricultural activities which greatly increases the farm work output.

Please read on agricultural tools and their uses here.

Nowadays, agricultural machinery has replaced many manual processes and animals such as oxen, horses, donkeys and mules.

Within the rural communities in Nigeria, farmers still utilizes a cutlass for clearing grasses and hoe for digging and making ridges on large farmlands.

The use of the aformentioned crude techniques on large farmlands will greatly slow down agricultural processes and output.


  • Government policies

Before now, the government policies on agriculture had been very unfavourable to farmers. This is so because the budgetary allocation to the nation's agricutural sector was quite small. As a result, we saw massive importation and smuggling of various agricultural products.

In 2017, the Nigerian government made policies that encouraged rice production among the different states in Nigeria.

Please read on importance of government here.


  • High cost of fertilizers

A fertilizer is a chemical or natural substance added to soil or land to increase and improve its fertility.

This cost of fertilizers in Nigeria is quite expensive. As a result, the rural petty farmers are unable to purchase them.

Subsidizing fertilizers and other agricutural materials by the federal and state governments will go a long way in boosting agriculture in Nigeria.

Please read on consumer right and protection here.


  • Lack of education

Education is the future of any nation. Unfortunately, the majority of farmers in Nigeria are uneducated, and this has lead to poor and reduced agricultural produce.

Please read more on illiteracy here.

Improper pest control, use of poor seedlings and poor understanding of plants' physiology are among the attributes of poor agricultural education.


  • Lack of storage facilities

The lack of agricultural storage facilities has lead to the decay of excess agricultural produce in Nigeria.

The quality of various agricultural produce are reduced while others are lost to pest.

Please read on pest of agricultural importance here.


  • Bad road network

Land mode of transportation is the major path to the circulation of agricultural produce within Nigeria.

Understand that road is one of the means of transportation under 'land mode of transportation'.

In addition, the railway system in Nigeria is not significantly developed (as at 2019).

Please read on the modes of transportation here.

Transportation of agricultural produce is mainly by road in Nigeria. The bad quality of these roads had constantly lead to a decreased amount of produce reaching the market.

Similarly, loss of agricultural produce may also result from accident and theft on these roads.


  • Poor research facilities

There are little or no agricultural research centers (agricultural extensions) in Nigeria. As a result, farmers lack the technical knowhow on how to go about their daily business.

Please read on the roles of government in agriculture here.

The lack of functioning agricultural research centers in the nation accounts for the underdevelopment and little progress seen in the agricultural sector.

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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum

Peanuts are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments

Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them

Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd

Notable points in Agricultural Science

Below are characteristics of gymnosperms:

  1. Their seeds have cones that protect them.

  2. Sepals and petals aren't present in their cones.

  3. Stigma and style are absent.

  4. They do not produce fruits. Only seeds are formed.

  5. Companion cells are absent.

  6. Sporophyll form the cones.

  7. Anther and filament are absent.

  8. The ovules are not present in the ovary.

  9. Gymnosperms do not possess flowers.

  10. Please read on the anatomical differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms here

The flower is the reproductive organ in plants' sexual reproduction. In order to achieve a successful sexual propagation or reproduction in plants, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.

The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:

  1. Sepals

  2. Petals

  3. Stamen

  4. Carpel

The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.

The carpel (or pistil) is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.

Please read more on plants' sexual reproduction here

An organism will be considered a pest if it does one of the followings:

  • Attack crops and eat its seeds, roots, stem, leaves and flowers. Examples are locust and grasshoppers.

  • Cause damage to stored food, fruits or other agricultural produce. Some may even urinate or deaficate on these products. Examples are rodents, cockroaches and mice.

  • Attack and kill farm animals like goats, sheep and cattle. Examples are foxes, wild cats and snakes.

  • Act as disease vectors. A vector is an organism that carries parasite and other disease causing organisms, without being affected; but when they introduce the parasites into their host, such host becomes infected with disease. Examples of vectors are rodents and mosquitoes.

    Please read more on vectors of diseases here.

Below are the classification of crops based on their uses:

  • Oil crops

  • Vegetable crops

  • Latex crops

  • Drug and Medicinal crops

  • Beverage crops

  • Fibre crops

  • Fruit crops

  • Root and Tubers

  • Legumes

  • Spices

  • Cereals

All crops are plants but not all plants are crops. Below are some instances:

  • Weeds are considered as plants, not crops.

  • Parasitic plants are not necessarily crops. Examples of parasitic plants include mistletoe, corpse flower and striga.

  • Carnivorous or insectivorous plants are not necessarily crops. Examples are sundew, venus flytrap and pitcher plant. The image below shows a carnivorous plant (venus flytrap).

Venus flytrap - Len Academy


Meanwhile, always understand that all crops are plants, and they are grown for food, money or something beneficial.

Please read on plants versus crops here