Topics in Basic ScienceImportance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs What is immunization? How immunization works and the processes involved Food: What is food?
Academic Questions in Basic Science
Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.
With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.
A. International bodies
Disease causing organisms are termed _____.
E. Disease carriers
F. All the above options are correct
____ is formed from a reaction utilizing oxygen and glucose in the mitochondria of cells.
Which of the following statement is false concerning carbohydrates?
A. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only
B. Carbon has the highest ratio of the constituent elements of carbohydrates
C. All carbohydrates are sugars
D. Fructose is a carbohydrate
E. Natural milk contains lactose and it's a carbohydrate
F. Fatty foods contains high calories of energy when compared to the same quantity of carbohydrate foods
Which of the following is a class of food?
Brachiation is a specialized form of movement exhibited by _____.
A. Human beings
_____ is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs.
B. Duo Pedalism
C. Double Pedalism
D. Dual Pedalism
Waste management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.
Wastes are generated from homes, factories, market places, hospitals, schools, industries and many other places. The growth and development of nations where these wastes are prevalent will be adversely affected.
Below are some of the effects of improper waste management:
The burning of waste materials like plastics, papers and rubber will contaminate the atmosphere with gases like carbon(II)oxide, carbon(IV)oxide and sulphur(IV)oxide.
Atmospheric pollution via the release of toxic gases will also result from biodegradable waste. This is true because biodegradable wastes are eventually broken down or decomposed by bacteria and fungi respectively.
Also, waste may contain toxic chemicals like dioxin. Dioxin is a waste product generated from the rearing of broilers.
Understand that the pollution of the atmosphere as a result of these wastes will negatively affect humans, plants, wildlife and other living organisms.
The pollution of water bodies by solid and liquid waste will result in the suffocation and death of aquatic organisms.
As an instance, oil spillage has been a major problem in the riverine areas (south-south region) of Nigeria. Oil spillage is prevalent here since crude oil (or petroleum) is one of the natural resources present in the south-south states of Nigeria.
The decomposition of biodegradable waste will result into the release of green house gases like carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide into the atmosphere.
In addition, human activities like combustion and burning are constantly releasing more greenhouse gases, especially carbon(IV)oxide into the atmosphere.
Excessive greenhouse gases have an adverse effect on weather conditions over a long period of time. This is so because these gases are gradually bringing about an increase in the temperature of the earth, giving rise to global warming.
Waste materials such as plastic containers, ink, oil and petroleum products will have damaging effects on the soil.
The aformentioned wastes will adversely affect the growth of plants and other organisms living in and on the soil. As a result, the soil becomes less fertile and agricutural land and its activities becomes negativity affected.
With regards to the carbon cycle, plants are the only organisms that take away carbon(IV)oxide from the atmosphere. They do this through a process termed photosynthesis.
Interestingly, plants are also the only organisms that fixes oxygen back into the atmosphere. They do this through photosynthesis.
Note: Without atmospheric oxygen (generated by plants), humans and animals will cease to exist.
Carcinogens are defined as substances that can cause cancer. Examples are radioactive wastes.
Radioactive wastes can be potentially damaging to humans when inhaled. They increase the formation of cancerous cells in human systems. Some may even cause leukemia, a form of blood cancer.
When excess waste materials find their way into gutters and pipes, blockage of such gutters and pipes will result. Blocked gutters and drainages bring about flooding in the affected areas.
Also, stagnant waters will act as breeding sites for mosquitoes and other vectors of diseases.
Wastes materials found in neighborhoods serve as homes to pest and pathogens. These pathogens will in turn cause diseases in the long run.
As an instance, lasa fever is a disease caused by pathogens carried by rodents dwelling in dirty environments.
Other diseases caused as a result of improper waste management include cholera, malaria, fever, dysentery, diarrhea and tetanus.
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Amazing facts in Basic Science
Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water
Tomatoes and Avocados are fruits, not vegetables
Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.
Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell
Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack
The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6
Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear
Cats are unable to taste sweet things
Apples float on water. Other fruits that float on water include lemons, bananas, pears, and oranges
Rain water is said to be pure because it's colorless, odourless and tasteless. Interestingly, it also contains vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient that keeps the blood cells and neurones healthy. It also assist in building the DNA (a genetic material present in the cell's nucleus). Vitamin B12 also aid in the prevention of megaloblastic anemia which makes people weak and tired
Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your palm
NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science
The uniqueness of man can be defined as that which makes man distinct from every other animal and living organism.
Humans are higher animals when compared to other animals.
Under the classification of living organisms, humans belong to an order termed primates and thus share the same characteristics (as primates). In addition to these features, they also have their unique characteristics.
Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.
Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:
The waste block drainages hence resulting to flooding, especially during the rainy seasons.
Please read on erosion here.
They generate bad smells which can be dangerous to health.
They constitute nuisance and eyesore.
They become homes to various disease causing organisms.
Please read on vectors of diseases here.
Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:
Animal product waste
The African Star Apple is a seasonal fruit that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It's fondly called African Cherry, Agbalumo or Udara in some parts of Nigeria.
Below are some benefits of the African Star Apple:
It contains high amount of vitamin C
It contains a high amount of calcium
It contains high amount of potassium
It is a powerful antioxidant
It aids in weight reduction
It contains a high amount of iron
Its leaves, fruits and seeds are medicinal
It aids digestion and prevents vomiting
Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.
Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.
Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.
The breast milk contains the disaccharide -> lactose.
Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.
In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.
Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).
Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose
Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose