Topics in BiologyTropical savanna explained with its characteristics Ecological pyramid explained with its importance and limitations Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Male accessory sex organs: Seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands Scrotum and its contents: Testicles Brain: Introduction to the human brain Forebrain: Lobes of the cerebrum and their functions Cerebellum: Parts and functions of the cerebellum Midbrain: Division and functions of the midbrain Negative feedback mechanism in homeostasis Arterial disorders explained with their causes Types of desert and their characteristics Characteristics of tropical rainforest Swamp forest: What are swamp forests? Characteristics of swamp forests Savanna biome: Concept of the savanna
Academic Questions in Biology
In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level _____.
Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.
F. None of the above
All reptiles are vertebrates.
_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.
_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.
Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?
A diagram showing the movement of energy through a food chain is called a _____.
Which of the following is NOT a part of the wrist bones (or carpal bones)?
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Recall that bones are composed of living cells called osteocytes and non-living cells (composed mainly of minerals salts and collagen fibres).
In a previous article, we explained the classification of bones based on shape. In case you missed our explanation on bones under the above classification; please read it here.
In this article, we will continue to explain the various types of bone based on their classifications.
We already know that all bones are composed of the same materials. These materials include:
Based on how the contents of a bone is structured, we can classify them into the followings:
1. Compact Bone
A compact bone is composed of numerous bone cells together with minerals (hydroxyapatite); and as a result, only little space or cavity is present within it.
Compact bone forms the hard external layer of all bones and will typically surround the medullary cavity. The medullary cavity of a bone houses the bone marrow.
The bone marrow in a compact bone is referred to as the yellow marrow.
The compact bone function to strengthen and protect the inner matrix of the bone.
Compact bone contain osteons. Also, the haversian systems are present within them.
Note: Osteons are composed of osteocytes and minerals (hydroxyapatite) connected by a canaliculi which transports blood.
A compact bone is also termed as a cortical bone.
The diagram below shows the compact and spongy bones:
2. Spongy Bone
The structure of a spongy bone is such that empty spaces or cavities are more when compared to the bony tissue. This implies that the osteocytes, hydroxyapatite and fibres are few.
A spongy bone constitutes the internal layers of bones; unlike compact bone which forms the external layers.
Present within the cavities of the spongy bone is the red bone marrow. (Please see the diagram above). The red blood cells alongside other blood cells are produced in the red bone marrow of spongy bones.
Please read more on the red blood cells here.
The tissues (group of cells) making up the spongy bone does not contain osteons, rather they are made of trabeculae. For this reason, the spongy is also termed as the trabecular bone.
When we examine the head of long bones (called epiphysis), we will observe that within it are spongy bones. Here, they function to reduce the density of the epiphysis, thus allowing for compression when such bone is stretched.
Understand that a spongy bone can be easily broken and chewed to extract its fluid. In some parts of the world, it's fondly referred to as 'biscuit bone'.
Another name for spongy bone is cancellous bone or trabecular bone.
3. Fibrous Bone
They are found only in fetus and are composed mainly of fibres.
4. Lamellar Bone
We the 3 types of bones with regards to how they are developed; these are:
1. Cartilaginous Bones
Ossification of cartilaginous bone begins from the cartilage. Examples of cartilaginous bones include the bones of the upper limbs, lower limbs, rib cage.
The upper limb is the region of the body that extends from the arm through the fingers.
2. Membranous Bones or Dermal Bones
These bones are very likely to ossify in a fetus. (Think of a fetus or foetus as a baby still inside the mother's womb).
The process through which they ossify is termed <,u>intra-membranous ossification.
The skull and face bones are membranous bones.
3. Membrocartilaginous Bones
Examples are collar bone (clavicle), occipital bone and the mandible.
These bones are classified based on whether they are medial (towards the midline) of the body or lateral (away from the midline of the body).
We can categorize them into 2:
1. Bones of the axial skeleton
The axial skeleton in humans is found along the midline of their body. They include the following bones:
The diagram below shows the axial skeleton (colored in yellow) and the appendicular skeleton (colored in green):
Note: The ribs, sternum and the thoracic vertebra form the rib cage or thoracic cage.
2. Bones of the appendicular skeleton
The appendicular skeleton is located lateral (away) from the body. They include the:
The bones of the upper limbs include
The bones of the lower limbs include:
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Amazing facts in Biology
99% of a panda's diet is bamboo. They may eat fish or other small animals occasionally
When attacked by insects, lima beans plant will often command parasitic wasps to their defence.
When the leaves of the lima bean's leaves are eaten by insects, the plant gives off a substance that signals parasitic wasps to swam in, destroying its enemies (the leaf-eating insects) in the process
Frogs drink water through their skin
Armadillos are western mammals known for their unique armor-like shell which are bulletproof
Although zebras are known for their characteristics black and white stripes, we still have some polka-dotted zebras
Charles Darwin is a British naturalist and biologist who contributed greatly into the study of evolution. According to research, he frequently ate the animals he studied
Lungs are the only human organ that can float on water
Unlike most snakes that lay eggs, anacondas give birth to live babies
A shrimp's heart is in its head
Women have more pain receptors than men
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Bios: means life.
Logos: means knowledge or to study.
Biology can therefore be defined as the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism). All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
Irritability or Sensitivity
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym -> MR. NIGER DAC.
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.
It is noteworthy to state that plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere