Topics in BiologyFood web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs Male Reproductive System: Scrotum and its contents Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain Forebrain: Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain Negative Feedback Mechanism in Homeostasis Arterial Disorders: Characteristics and Causes of Arterial Disorders Types of Desert and their Characteristics Characteristics of Tropical Rainforest Swamp Forest: What are Swamp Forests? Characteristics of Swamp Forests Savanna: Savanna and Grassland explained Savanna - Types of Savanna Tropical Savanna and Temperate Savanna with their Characteristics Introduction to Biomes: What is a Biome?
Academic Questions in Biology
The final organisms in a food chain are best referred to as _____.
E. tertiary consumers
F. quatenary consumers
Which of the following is a category of long bones?
The end product of photosynthesis is _____.
The above diagram illustrates a _____.
The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.
Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the human skeleton?
Organisms that manufacture their own food through the help of sunlight or chemicals are best referred to as _____.
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Recall that bones are composed of living cells called osteocytes and non-living cells (composed mainly of minerals salts and collagen fibres).
In a previous article, we explained the classification of bones based on shape. In case you missed our explanation on bones under the above classification; please read it here.
In this article, we will continue to explain the various types of bone based on their classifications.
We already know that all bones are composed of the same materials. These materials include:
Based on how the contents of a bone is structured, we can classify them into the followings:
1. Compact Bone
A compact bone has more of bone cells together with minerals (hydroxyapatite); and as a result, only little space or cavity is present within it.
Compact bone forms the hard external layer of all bones and will typically surround the medullary cavity. The medullary cavity of a bone houses the bone marrow.
The bone marrow in a compact bone is referred to as the yellow marrow.
The compact bone function to strengthen and protect the inner matrix of the bone.
Compact bone contains osteons; and the haversian systems are present within them.
Note: Osteons are composed of osteocytes and minerals (hydroxyapatite) connected by a canaliculi which transports blood.
A compact bone is also referred to as a cortical bone.
The diagram below shows the Compact and Spongy bones:
2. Spongy Bone
The structure of a spongy bone is such that empty spaces or cavities are more when compared to the bony tissue; that is osteocytes, hydroxyapatite and fibres.
A spongy bone constitutes the internal layers of bones; unlike compact bone which forms the external layers.
Present within the cavities of the spongy is the red bone marrow. (Please see the diagram above).
The Red Blood Cells (alongside other blood cells) are produced in the red bone marrow of spongy bones.
Please read more on the Red Blood Cells here.
The tissues (group of cells) making up the spongy bone does not contain osteons that constitute a compact bone tissue, rather they are made of trabeculae. For this reason, the spongy is also termed as the trabecular bone.
When we examine the head of long bones (epiphysis), we will observe that within it are spongy bones. Here, they function to reduce the density of the epiphysis, thus allowing for compression when such bone is stretched.
Note: A spongy bone can be easily broken and chewed to extract its fluid. In Nigeria, it's fondly referred to as “biscuit bone”.
Another name for spongy bone is Cancellous bone or Trabecular bone.
3. Fibrous Bone
They are found only in fetus and are composed mainly of fibres.
4. Lamellar Bone
We the 3 types of bones with regards to how they are developed; they are:
1. Cartilaginous Bones
Ossification of cartilaginous bone begins from the cartilage.
The bones of the upper limbs, lower limbs and rib cage are all cartilaginous bone.
The upper limb is the region of the body that extends from the arm through the fingers.
The lower limb is the region that extends from the thigh through the toes
2. Membranous Bones or Dermal Bones
These bones are very likely to ossify in a fetus. (Think of a fetus or foetus as a baby still inside the mother's womb).
The process through which they ossify is termed intra-membranous ossification.
Note: The skull and face bones are membranous bones.
3. Membrocartilaginous Bones
Examples are collar bone (clavicle), occipital bone and the mandible.
These bones are classified based on whether they are medial (towards the midline) of the body or lateral (away from the midline of the body).
We can categorize them into 2:
1. Bones of the Axial Skeleton
The axial skeleton in humans is found along the midline of their body. They include the following bones:
The diagram below shows the axial skeleton (colored in yellow) and the appendicular skeleton (colored in green):
Note: The ribs, sternum and the thoracic vertebra form the rib cage or thoracic cage.
2. Bones of the Appendicular Skeleton
The appendicular skeleton is located lateral (away) from the body. They include the:
The bones of the upper limbs include
The bones of the lower limbs include:
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Amazing facts in Biology
Male Seahorses actually give birth to their young ones, NOT the female
All babies are born with blue eyes
Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains
All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain
A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁
An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages
Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.
Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered Living, it must possess all the Basic Characteristics of Life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2.
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here
Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere