Biology

Types of cartilage

len Alfred Ajibola - Sat, 21st December, 2019 @ 10:27 PM

Topics in Biology

Tropical savanna explained with its characteristics Ecological pyramid explained with its importance and limitations Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Male accessory sex organs: Seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands Scrotum and its contents: Testicles Brain: Introduction to the human brain Forebrain: Lobes of the cerebrum and their functions Cerebellum: Parts and functions of the cerebellum Midbrain: Division and functions of the midbrain Negative feedback mechanism in homeostasis Arterial disorders explained with their causes Types of desert and their characteristics Characteristics of tropical rainforest Swamp forest: What are swamp forests? Characteristics of swamp forests Savanna biome: Concept of the savanna


Academic Questions in Biology

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level  _____.

  • A. Zero

  • B. One

  • C. Two

  • D. Three

  • E. Four

  • F. Five

Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.

  • A. Homeotherms

  • B. Endotherms

  • C. Poilokitherms

  • D. Ectotherms

  • E. Thermotherms

  • F. None of the above

All reptiles are vertebrates.

  • A. True

  • B. False

_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.

  • A. Osteocytes
  • B. Chondrocytes
  • C. Chondroblasts
  • D. Osteoclasts
  • E. Osteoprogenitor cells
  • F. Osteoblastic

_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.

  • A. Clavicle
  • B. Scapula
  • C. Patella
  • D. Radius
  • E. Sternum
  • F. Femur

Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?

  • A. Cartilage does not have a direct blood supply while bones have direct blood supply
  • B. The process of ossification replaces a cartilage to bone
  • C. The protein that makes up cartilage is called chondrin while that that makes up bone is called ossein
  • D. Cartilage grows from both ends while bones grow from one of its epiphysis
  • E. They both have living cells within them
  • F. Haversian system is absent in cartilage but present in bones

A diagram showing the movement of energy through a food chain is called a _____.

  • A. Food Chain
  • B. Food Web
  • C. Food Energy
  • D. Food Link
  • E. Food Flow
  • F. Food Pyramid

Which of the following is NOT a part of the wrist bones (or carpal bones)?

  • A. Cuboid
  • B. Scaphoid
  • C. Hamate
  • D. Triquetral
  • E. Pisiform
  • F. Trapezium


Types of cartilage:

Cartilage is one of the skeletal materials found in living organisms. The others are bone and chitin.

Mammals generally have 3 types of cartilage. These are:


1. Hyaline cartilage

A major characteristics of the hyaline cartilage is the fact that it has very few fibres in its matrix. For this reason, hyaline cartilage may also be referred to as a pure cartilage.

Hyaline cartilage is the major component of embryonic skeleton (that is, the skeleton of a developing child in the womb). In adult humans, it is found in the following parts of the body:

  1. Trachea and bronchi. They are present as rings of cartilage that keeps the trachea and bronchi open at all times for easy passage of air.
  2. The protruding part of the nose.
  3. The nasal septum. Nasal septum is the cartilagenous wall that separates both nasal cavities.
  4. On the surface of all moveable joints. The shoulder and hip joints are examples here.
  5. Between the ribs and the sternum.
  6. It also lines the end of growing bones.

Please read on skeleton and its functions here.


The image below shows the hyaline cartilage acting as an articular cartilage between two long bones:
Hyaline Cartilage - Len Academy


Note the following:

Tendons attach muscle to bones.

Muscles, bones and tendons, alongside their innervations are responsible for movement in humans.

Ligament attaches bone to bone. They generally help to stabilize the joint.

You can read more on the types of bone here.


2. Fibrocartilage

A fibrocartilage contains numerous collagen fibres. As a result, they are tougher than hyaline cartilages.

In humans, fibrocartilages are found in following regions:

  1. The disc between each vertebra that make up the vertebral column.
  2. Menisci that cushions the joint of the knee and elbow.
  3. It is present between the pubic symphysis. You can think of the pubic symphysis as the two pubic bones of the hip joined by a hyaline cartilage.

    please read on the 206 bones of the human skeleton here.

  4. Where tendons and ligaments are present. For instance, fibrocartilage is found between the carpal bones and the anterior end of the ulna and radius bone.

The image below shows the fibrocartilage found on the disc between each vertebrae.
Fibrocartilage - Len Academy

Please read on some amazing facts in biology here.


3. Elastic cartilage

As the name suggests, an elastic cartilage can be easily stretched because they are elastic in nature.

The elasticity of this cartilage is as a result of a large amount of a protein called elastin present in its matrix.

Elastic cartilage is present in the eternal ear (pinna) and the epiglottis.

The epiglottis is a cartilaginous material found just above the pharynx. It aids the process of swallowing by flapping in order to prevent food from getting into the trachea and ultimately the lungs.

Note: It’s generally a good idea not to be carried away by talking when eating; else, one might end up coughing out food substance from the mouth and nose. This resultant coughing is actually a reflex action and this is another mechanism of preventing food from going into the lungs.

The image below shows the elastic cartilage of the outer ear or pinna:
Elastic Cartilage of the Ear - Len Academy


Ossification is the natural process that leads to the formation of bone. In this regard, cartilages are ossified into bones.

Please read on bone cells here.

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NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology

For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:

  1. Movement

  2. Respiration

  3. Nutrition

  4. Irritability or Sensitivity

  5. Growth

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Death

  9. Adaptation

  10. Competition

Please read the explanations on all the basic characteristics of life here

During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.

This is the concept of anaerobic respiration

Food Chain - Len Academy

A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.

Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:

  • Terrestrial (Land)
  • Aquatic (Water)
  • Arboreal (Treetops)

You can read on food chain here

The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:

  • Bios: means life.

  • Logos: means knowledge or to study.

Biology can therefore be defined as the study of life

Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism). All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:

  1. Movement

  2. Respiration

  3. Nutrition

  4. Irritability or Sensitivity

  5. Growth

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Death

  9. Adaptation

  10. Competition

The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym -> MR. NIGER DAC.

You can read on the introduction to biology and the basic characteristics of life here

The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2

Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.

Please read on photosynthesis here

It is noteworthy to state that plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere