Topics in BiologyTropical savanna explained with its characteristics Ecological pyramid explained with its importance and limitations Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Male accessory sex organs: Seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands Scrotum and its contents: Testicles Brain: Introduction to the human brain Forebrain: Lobes of the cerebrum and their functions Cerebellum: Parts and functions of the cerebellum Midbrain: Division and functions of the midbrain Negative feedback mechanism in homeostasis Arterial disorders explained with their causes Types of desert and their characteristics Characteristics of tropical rainforest Swamp forest: What are swamp forests? Characteristics of swamp forests Savanna biome: Concept of the savanna
Academic Questions in Biology
In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level _____.
Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.
F. None of the above
All reptiles are vertebrates.
_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.
_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.
Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?
A diagram showing the movement of energy through a food chain is called a _____.
Which of the following is NOT a part of the wrist bones (or carpal bones)?
Cartilage is one of the skeletal materials found in living organisms. The others are bone and chitin.
Mammals generally have 3 types of cartilage. These are:
A major characteristics of the hyaline cartilage is the fact that it has very few fibres in its matrix. For this reason, hyaline cartilage may also be referred to as a pure cartilage.
Hyaline cartilage is the major component of embryonic skeleton (that is, the skeleton of a developing child in the womb). In adult humans, it is found in the following parts of the body:
The image below shows the hyaline cartilage acting as an articular cartilage between two long bones:
Note the following:
Tendons attach muscle to bones.
Muscles, bones and tendons, alongside their innervations are responsible for movement in humans.
Ligament attaches bone to bone. They generally help to stabilize the joint.
A fibrocartilage contains numerous collagen fibres. As a result, they are tougher than hyaline cartilages.
In humans, fibrocartilages are found in following regions:
The image below shows the fibrocartilage found on the disc between each vertebrae.
As the name suggests, an elastic cartilage can be easily stretched because they are elastic in nature.
The elasticity of this cartilage is as a result of a large amount of a protein called elastin present in its matrix.
Elastic cartilage is present in the eternal ear (pinna) and the epiglottis.
The epiglottis is a cartilaginous material found just above the pharynx. It aids the process of swallowing by flapping in order to prevent food from getting into the trachea and ultimately the lungs.
Note: It’s generally a good idea not to be carried away by talking when eating; else, one might end up coughing out food substance from the mouth and nose. This resultant coughing is actually a reflex action and this is another mechanism of preventing food from going into the lungs.
The image below shows the elastic cartilage of the outer ear or pinna:
Ossification is the natural process that leads to the formation of bone. In this regard, cartilages are ossified into bones.
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Amazing facts in Biology
99% of a panda's diet is bamboo. They may eat fish or other small animals occasionally
When attacked by insects, lima beans plant will often command parasitic wasps to their defence.
When the leaves of the lima bean's leaves are eaten by insects, the plant gives off a substance that signals parasitic wasps to swam in, destroying its enemies (the leaf-eating insects) in the process
Frogs drink water through their skin
Armadillos are western mammals known for their unique armor-like shell which are bulletproof
Although zebras are known for their characteristics black and white stripes, we still have some polka-dotted zebras
Charles Darwin is a British naturalist and biologist who contributed greatly into the study of evolution. According to research, he frequently ate the animals he studied
Lungs are the only human organ that can float on water
Unlike most snakes that lay eggs, anacondas give birth to live babies
A shrimp's heart is in its head
Women have more pain receptors than men
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Bios: means life.
Logos: means knowledge or to study.
Biology can therefore be defined as the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism). All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
Irritability or Sensitivity
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym -> MR. NIGER DAC.
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.
It is noteworthy to state that plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere