Topics in BiologyFood web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs Male Reproductive System: Scrotum and its contents Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain Forebrain: Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain Negative Feedback Mechanism in Homeostasis Arterial Disorders: Characteristics and Causes of Arterial Disorders Types of Desert and their Characteristics Characteristics of Tropical Rainforest Swamp Forest: What are Swamp Forests? Characteristics of Swamp Forests Savanna: Savanna and Grassland explained Savanna - Types of Savanna Tropical Savanna and Temperate Savanna with their Characteristics Introduction to Biomes: What is a Biome?
Academic Questions in Biology
The final organisms in a food chain are best referred to as _____.
E. tertiary consumers
F. quatenary consumers
Which of the following is a category of long bones?
The end product of photosynthesis is _____.
The above diagram illustrates a _____.
The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.
Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the human skeleton?
Organisms that manufacture their own food through the help of sunlight or chemicals are best referred to as _____.
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Humans and animals need skeleton for their shape and support. For instance, if humans had no skeleton, they will be imagined to be like a lump of skin on the floor, without any form, shape and support.
In plants, rather than having a skeleton, they possess xylem which has in its composition some dead and hardened tissues (commonly called wood). These attribute to a plant's uprightness and support.
In animals, the skeleton is defined as a bony framework of the body that provides support, shape and protection.
Unicellular organisms do also have a form of skeleton.
The skeleton serves various functions in animals. For instance:
The skeleton provides support to humans in the sense that our bodily muscles are attached to various bones in our body via the tendons.
As an instance, the bone of the ribs serves as an attachment to the intercostal muscles. The intercostal muscles are quite important during the process of breathing.
Similarly, the arm muscles are attached to the scapula bone; are these are necessary for some of the movements of the upper limb.
Animals have got different shapes and this is a function of the skeleton. The ability to stand in an upright position is one of the characteristics of primates; and the nature of their skeleton is responsible for their uprightness.
Skeleton offers protection to the delicate internal organs. Examples of these organs are the heart and lungs which are protected by the rib cage or thoracic cage. Also, the brain is protected inside the skull and this is one reason why footballers can perform heading skills in the game of football without damaging their brain.
Below is an image of the Human Skeleton:
In Humans, the Skeleton generally performs six main functions. These are:
1. Protection: The skeleton protects the delicate internal organs; for instance, the brain is protected by some bones of the skull while the heart and lungs are protected by the sternum (breast bone) and ribs, giving rise to the rib cage or thoracic cage.
2. Movement: The skeleton brings about movement in conjunction with the cartilages, muscles, tendons and nervous system.
Please read on Cartilages and their Functions here.
Note: Ligaments attaches bone to bone while Tendons attaches muscles to bone.
3. Support and Shape:: Without the skeleton, we won't be upright. The shape of all animals are dependent on the structure of their skeleton. Also, the bones that make up the face supports it, giving the face it's structure.
Please read on Chitin (Skeletal Materials of Insects) here.
4. Production of Blood Cells: The Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and Platelets are produced in the bone marrow of spongy bones.
Please read on Classification of Bones based on Structure (Compact and Spongy Bone) here.
5. Hormonal functions: The bone is an endocrine organ.
Endocrine glands (or organs) produces hormones.
The hormone osteocalcin (produced by the bone cells) regulates insulin production and sensitivity in the body. The hormone also aid in the deposition of fats around the body.
Note: It is believed by medical scientist that osteocalcin has a part to play in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and obesity.
Please read on Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Mechanism here.
6. Storage of Minerals: About 99% of the total bodily calcium are present and stored in bones. The bone also accounts for about 85% of the body's phosphorus.
The bone acts as a repository of calcium. This function is vital in the regulation of blood calcium. This process can be critical to the survival of humans.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Male Seahorses actually give birth to their young ones, NOT the female
All babies are born with blue eyes
Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains
All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain
A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁
An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages
Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.
Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered Living, it must possess all the Basic Characteristics of Life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2.
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here
Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere