Biology

Bones and Type of Bone part 2

len Alfred Ajibola - Tue, 02nd July, 2019 @ 17:20: PM

Topics in Biology

Male Reproductive System: External and Internal Male Genitals Male accessory sex organs Food Chain, Food Web and Food Pyramid Skeleton and Type of Skeletal Materials Bones - Types of Bone Bones and Type of Bone part 2 Red Blood Cells and Hemoglobin Tropical Rainforest and Savanna with their characteristics Desert and Swamp Forest - Types of Desert, Characteristics of Deserts and Swamps Plant Nutrition and Photosynthesis - Autotrophic mode of Nutrition Amazing facts in Biology Protists - Examples and Characteristics of Protists Reptiles - Characteristics of Reptiles Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Mechanism Arteries, Layers of an Artery and Characteristics of Arterial Disorders Introduction to Biology - Basic Characteristics of Life



Academic Questions in Biology

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.

  • A. osteocytes
  • B. osteoblasts
  • C. osteoclasts
  • D. chondroblasts
  • E. chrondocytes
  • F. Osteoprogenitor cells

Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?

  • A. Ecdysis is a term associated with chitin
  • B. It is a skeletal material
  • C. It is a type of skeleton
  • D. It is present outside the organism
  • E. It does not grow when the organism grows
  • It is present in ants

Which of the following is NOT a function of the human skeleton?

  • A. Gives Shape
  • B. Provides Protection
  • C. Aids in Locomotion
  • D. Supports Movement
  • E. Assists in Inhalation and Exahalation
  • F. None of the above
  • G. All of the above

Organisms that manufacture their own food through the help of sunlight or chemicals are best referred to as _____.

  • A. autotrophs
  • B. chemosynthetic
  • C. photosynthentic
  • D. chemoautotrophs
  • E. photoautotrophs
  • F. chemoautotrophs

Organisms that begins a food chain and also manufacture their food through photosynthesis are best referred to as _____.

  • A. heterotrophs
  • B. autotrophs
  • C. homotrophs
  • D. producers
  • E. photosynthetic
  • F. chemosynthetic

_____ bones make up the skull.

  1. 10
  2. 12
  3. 15
  4. 20
  5. 22
  6. 25
  7. 30

Chemical digestion of carbohydrate (cooked starch) begins in the _____.

  1. mouth
  2. oesophagus
  3. stomach
  4. small Intestine
  5. large Intestine

Types of Bones:

Recall that bones are composed of living cells called osteocytes and non-living cells (minerals salts and collagen fibres). In a previous article, we explained the classification of bones based on shape. In case you missed our explanation on bones and the above classification; Please read on it here.

In this article, we will continue to explain the various types of bone based on their classifications.

 

  • Classification of bone based on Structure

We already know that all bones are composed of the same materials, that is, osteocytes or bone cells, hydroxyapatite (Calcium phosphate), Calcium carbonate, protein and collagen fibres. Based on how the contents of the bone is structured, we may classify them into the followings:

1. Compact Bone

A compact bone has more of bone cells together with minerals (hydroxyapatite); and as a result, only little space or cavity is present within it. They form the hard external layer of all bones and will typically surround the medullary cavity (which houses the bone marrow). The compact bone function to strengthen and protect the inner matrix of the bone. Compact bone contains osteons. The haversian systems are present within the compact bone.

Note: Osteons are composed of osteocytes and minerals (hydroxyapatite) connected by a canaliculi which transports blood.

A compact bone is sometimes called cortical bone.

 

2. Spongy bone

The structure of spongy bone is such that empty spaces or cavities are more when compared to the bony tissue (osteocyteshydroxyapatite and fibres). They form the internal layers of bones; unlike compact bone which forms the external layers. Spongy bone tissue does not contain osteons that constitute compact bone tissue, rather they are made of trabeculae. When we examine the head of long bones (epiphysis), we will observe that within it are spongy bones. Here, they function to reduce the density of the epiphysis, thus allowing for compression when such bone is stretched.

 Note: A spongy bone can be easily broken and chewed to extract its fluid. In Nigeria, it's fondly referred to as “biscuit bone”.

Another name for spongy bone is Cancellous bone

3. Fibrous bone

They are found only in fetus and are composed mainly of fibres.

4. Lamellar bone

 

  • Classification of bone based on Development

We the 3 types of bones with regard to how they are developed; they are:

1. Cartilaginous bones

Ossification of cartilaginous bone begins from the cartilage. The bones of the upper limbs, lower limbs and rib cage are all cartilaginous bone.

The upper limb is the region from the arm through the fingers

The lower limb is the region from the thigh through the toes

2. Membranous Bones or Dermal Bones

These bones are very likely to in a fetus (when the baby is still inside the mother’s womb. The process through which they ossify is termed intra-membranous ossification. The skull and face bones are membranous bones.

3. Membrocartilaginous bones

Examples are collar bone (clavicle), occipital bone and the mandible.

 

  • Classification of bone based on bodily region

These bones are classified base on whether they are medial (towards the midline) of the body or lateral (away from the midline of the body). We can categorize them into 2:

1. Bones of the axial skeleton

The axial skeleton in humans is found along the midline of their body. They include the following bones:

  1. Skull
  2. Vertebral column
  3. Sternum
  4. Ribs

Image Credit: Bikramjenn

The ribs, sternum and the thoracic vertebra form the rib cage or thoracic cage.

2. Bones of the appendicular skeleton

The appendicular skeleton is located lateral (away) from the body. They include the:

  1. Bones of the upper limbs: The upper limb in humans consists of the region of the arm through the fingers. The bones of the upper limbs include the humerus, ulna, radius, wrist bones (carpal bones), metacarpals and phalanges.
  2.  

  3. Bones of the lower limb: The lower limb in humans consists of the region from the thigh through the toe nails. The bones of the lower limb include the femur, tibia, fibula, ankle bones (tarsal bones), metatarsals and phalanges

THANKS FOR READING - Please Help Share!




len

Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.



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Male Seahorses actually give birth to their young ones, NOT the female

All babies are born with blue eyes

Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains

All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain

A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁

An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages

Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.

Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here


NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology

During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.

This is the concept of anaerobic respiration

A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.

Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:

  • Terrestrial (Land)
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You can read on Food Chain here

The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:

  • Bios: means life. 
  • Logos: means knowledge or to study.

Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life

Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:

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  3. Nutrition
  4. Irritability or Sensitivity
  5. Growth
  6. Excretion
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  8. Death
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  10. Competition

The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).

You can read on the introduction to Biology and the basic characteristics of life here

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Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here

Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere

In the Biological organization of life, it is said that cells form tissues, tissues form organs and organs form systems. There are 12 systems in the human body; these are:

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  3. Endocrine System
  4. Immune System
  5. Integumentary System
  6. Lymphatic System
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Please read on the amazing facts in Biology here

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