Characteristics of Sedimentary Rock

len Alfred Ajibola - 19th June, 2022 @ 04:01 PM

Topics in Geography

Environmental geography explained with its branches Igneous rock explained with its types and textures Characteristics of Igneous Rock What are Sedimentary Rocks? Formation and Types of Sedimentary Rock Characteristics of Sedimentary Rock Types and Characteristics of Metamorphic Rock Physical geography explained with its branches Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Classification and types of planets with their characteristics Planets of the solar system explained with their characteristics Functions of the Atmosphere Layers of the Atmosphere Solar System in Geography Composition of the Atmosphere Human geography explained with its branches What are metamorphic rocks? Formation of metamorphic rock?

Academic Questions in Geography

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following is not a branch of environmental geography?

  • A. Physical Geography

  • B. Hazards

  • C. Political Ecology

  • D. Environmental Perception

  • E. Landscape Studies

  • F. Energy and Resource Geography

Sandstone is an example of _____ ​​​​​​.

  • A. Sandy soil

  • B. Loamy soil

  • C. Clay soil

  • D. Igneous rock

  • E. Sedimentary rock 

  • F. Metamorphic rock

Which of the following isn't an example of metamorphic rock?

  • A. Schist

  • B. Quartzite

  • C. Gabbro

  • D. Marble

  • E. Slate

  • F. Serpentinite

Which of the following statements is false concerning metamorphic rock?

  • A. The are less dense than igneous and sedimentary rocks

  • B. They can be foliated or non foliated

  • C. They are crystalline in nature

  • D. They have a more coarse texture than their protolith

  • E. They may be formed from an older metamorphic rock

  • F. They are characterized with precious metals and stones

Earth's distance from the sun is approximately _____ million kilometers.

  • A. 147

  • B. 85

  • C. 40

  • D. 220

  • E. 309

  • F. 400

Which of the following is not a branch of physical geography?

  • A. Economic Geography

  • B. Religious Geography

  • C. Social Geography

  • D. Resource Geography

  • E. Settlement Geography

  • F. Industrial Geography

Water resource geography is a branch under physiography.

  • A. True

  • B. False

With regards to ozone, which of the following is incorrect?

  • A. Ozone is a triatomic molecule

  • B. Ozone layer aids in preventing excess ultraviolet radiation from reaching the earth

  • C. Ozone is a natural greenhouses gas

  • D. Ozone comprises of oxygen molecules only

  • E. Ozone layer brings about a global warming on earth

  • F. Ozone is present in the stratosphere

Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks:

Sedimentary rocks are secondary rocks formed through sediments derived from pre-existing rocks alongside the remains of plants and animals (called fossils).

Examples of sedimentary rocks include shale, sandstone, limestone and flint. They are shown in the image below:

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Please read the introduction to sedimentary rocks, its formation and types here.

Below are the characteristics or features of sedimentary rocks:

  1. Sedimentary rocks are secondary rocks formed from the sediments of pre-existing rocks and fossils, that is: plant and animal remains.

  2. Sedimentary rocks are typically non-crystalline in nature. Unlike igneous rocks, they are soft and layered since they are formed from the deposition of sediments. These sediments are consolidated and compacted by cementing elements like silica, calcites and clay.
    Please read on igneous rock explained with its types here.

  3. Sedimentary rocks make up about 75% of the earth's surface. However, it is important to state that it comprises only about 5% of the earth crust. 95% of the crust is composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks.

  4. The composition of the sedimentary rocks depends upon the nature of its rock forming minerals and adhesive elements. For this reason, sedimentary rocks may be properly consolidated, poorly consolidated and even unconsolidated.
    You can read on layers of the atmosphere here.

  5. A higher percentage of sedimentary rocks are porous and permeable while a few aren't. Their porosity will depend upon the ratio between the volume of a given rock mass, its joint spaces and consolidations. The porosity of some sedimentary rocks allows them to retain oil and gas.

  6. In similarity to igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks are not found in massive forms like laccoliths, batholiths and dykes.

  7. Sedimentary rocks contain several layers or strata.
    Please read on metamorphic rock and its formation here.

  8. The layers (strata) found in sedimentary rocks are deformed as a result of lateral compressive and tensile forces. In this regard, the beds are folded and found in anticlinal and synclinal forms.

  9. Various types and sizes of sediments are deposited to form sedimentary rocks, and this occurs in patterns and systems. In this pattern, the size of sediments decreases from the littoral margins to the centre of the water bodies or sedimentation basins. These sediments are further consolidated and strengthened by cementing elements like silica, calcite, clay and iron containing compounds.

  10. Sedimentary rocks have different joints sizes which are always perpendicular to the bedding planes.
    You can read the characteristics of igneous rocks here.

  11. Sedimentation units in the sedimentary rocks are called beds. The uniformity of two beds along a bedding plane is termed conformity. The term comformity implies that both beds are similar in all respect. When two consecutive beds aren't uniform or conformal, the structure is called unconformity. The surfaces (upper and lower) of a bed are called bedding planes or bounding planes. Specifically, the upper surface of a bed is termed the upper bedding surface while the lower surface is referred to as sole . Meanwhile, understand that there are also sedimentary units within a bed.

  12. Sedimentation units (beds) having a thickness of more than 1cm are called as layers or strata while those below 1cm thickness are known as laminae. In short, several strata and laminae make up a bed. When the beds are deposited at an angle to the depositional surface, they are called cross beds or cross lamination.
    Please read on the types and characteristics of metamorphic rocks here.

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Amazing facts in Geography

Lake Baikal - Len Academy

Lake Baikal is the deepest freshwater lake in the world. It is located in Siberia, and has a depth of 5,315 feet (1,620 meters)

River Nile is the world's longest river, reaching a length of 6,853km. It runs through the borders of 11 African countries. These are Egypt, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi and Eritrea

The deepest place on Earth is the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean. It has a dept of 11,034 meters (or 36,201 feet)

Japan has recorded the most earthquakes and is thereby considered as the world's most earthquake-prone country

The planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune have no solid surfaces, but are rather made up of gases. For this reason, humans can never stand on them

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Burg Khalifa is the tallest building in the world (as at 2023). It is situated in Dubai and stands at over 2,700 feet

Pepto Bismol-colored Lake Hillier is a pink colored lake present in Australia

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Mount Everest is the highest point on earth with a height of 8,849 meters (29,032 feet). It is located between Nepal and Tibet, an autonomous region of China.

Mountain Everest is a symbol of relationship between Nepal and Tibet, and was named in the nineteenth century after George Everest, a former Surveyor General of India

A day on planet venus is longer than a year. This is so because it takes venus 243 'earth days' to spin round its axis (rotation), but takes 225 'earth days' to go around the sun (revolution).

In geography, understand that a day is reached when the planet makes a full spin or rotation round it's axis. However, a year is reached when a planet revolves fully around the sun

The Four Corners is a location in the United States of Ameria where one can stand in four states simultaneously (at the same time). The states are: Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.

On the Four Corners, a person stands on the southwestern corner of Colorado, southeastern corner of Utah, northeastern corner of Arizona, and northwestern corner of New Mexico at once.

Notable points in Geography

Planets can be categorized based on their composition. These include:

1. Terrestrial or Rocky Planets: They are mercury, venus, earth and mars. They are called terrestrial or rocky planets for the following reasons:

  • They have a rocky and compact surface.

  • They have no rings around them.

  • They have a few natural satellites.

  • They rotate slowly around their axis.


2. Gas or Jovian Planets: They include jupiter, saturn, uranus and neptune. They have the following features:

  • They are called jovian planets because they are bigger in size when compared to earth.

  • They are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium gas, hence the name 'gas planets' or 'gas giants'.

  • They rotate rapidly.

  • They have many satellites.

  • They have rings around them.

Please read more on the classification of planets here.

Planets of the Solar System - Len Academy

The following rules are required for a body to become classified (or regarded) as a planet:

  • It must orbit the sun.

  • It does not orbit another planet. This means that it must not be a satellite.

  • It must have sufficient mass which accounts for its self-gravity.

  • It must assume a nearly round shape.

Please read on the planets of the solar system here.

Earth's atmosphere is extremely important for the survival of all its inhabitants. As a student, it is important you comprehend how the above functions of the atmosphere support life. The explanations below give credence to this fact.

When one moves further away from earth, the atmosphere becomes thinner until it disappears into the outer space. There is no atmosphere in space. For this reason, astronauts will always wear a spacesuit while carrying along their oxygen gas masks and canisters when in space.

People living on very high altitudes will likely experience a reduced amount of oxygen in the atmosphere. Such people survive because their bodily organs become adapted to survive in such conditions.

On mountain everest for instance, mountain climbers will need to carry oxygen canisters because lesser amount of oxygen is present on this mountain.

Please read more on the functions of the atmosphere here

The interface forming the boundary between two atmospheric layers are always named with a 'pause' at its end; for instance;

  • Tropopause: This is the interface or boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere.

  • Stratopause: Interface between the stratosphere and mesosphere.

  • Mesopause: Interface between the mesosphere and ionosphere.

  • Ionopause: Interface between the ionosphere and thermosphere.

The atmosphere surrounding the earth is layered. Each layer has its own characteristics although the boundaries between them are not clearly defined.

The image below shows the different layers of the atmosphere:

Layers of the Atmosphere - Len Academy

Please read more on the layers of the atmosphere here.