Geography

Characteristics of Sedimentary Rock

len Alfred Ajibola - 19th June, 2022 @ 04:01 PM

Topics in Geography

Environmental geography explained with its branches Igneous rock explained with its types and textures Characteristics of Igneous Rock What are Sedimentary Rocks? Formation and Types of Sedimentary Rock Characteristics of Sedimentary Rock Types and Characteristics of Metamorphic Rock Physical geography explained with its branches Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Classification and types of planets with their characteristics Planets of the solar system explained with their characteristics Functions of the Atmosphere Layers of the Atmosphere Solar System in Geography Composition of the Atmosphere Human geography explained with its branches What are metamorphic rocks? Formation of metamorphic rock?


Academic Questions in Geography

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Earth's distance from the sun is approximately _____ million kilometers.

  • A. 147

  • B. 85

  • C. 40

  • D. 220

  • E. 309

  • F. 400

Which of the following is not a branch of physical geography?

  • A. Economic Geography

  • B. Religious Geography

  • C. Social Geography

  • D. Resource Geography

  • E. Settlement Geography

  • F. Industrial Geography

Water resource geography is a branch under physiography.

  • A. True

  • B. False

With regards to ozone, which of the following is incorrect?

  • A. Ozone is a triatomic molecule

  • B. Ozone layer aids in preventing excess ultraviolet radiation from reaching the earth

  • C. Ozone is a natural greenhouses gas

  • D. Ozone comprises of oxygen molecules only

  • E. Ozone layer brings about a global warming on earth

  • F. Ozone is present in the stratosphere

The atmosphere makes the followings possible on earth except _____.

  • A. Photosynthesis

  • B. Respiration

  • C. Rain

  • D. Ultraviolet rays

  • E. Global communication

  • F. Weather

The interface forming a boundary between the stratosphere and mesosphere is termed _____.

  • A. Mesoface

  • B. Mesopause

  • C. Mesostart

  • D. Stratoface

  • F. Stratopause

  • F. Stratostart

Which layer of atmosphere is closest to the earth?

  • A. Thermosphere

  • B. Mesosphere

  • C. Stratosphere

  • D. Ionosphere

  • E. Troposphere

  • F. Exosphere

Argon makes up _____ percent of the atmosphere.

  • A. 0.93

  • B. 0.002

  • C. 0.0005

  • D. 0.00009

  • E. 0.00005

  • F. 0.036

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Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks:

Sedimentary rocks are secondary rocks formed through sediments derived from pre-existing rocks alongside the remains of plants and animals (called fossils).

Examples of sedimentary rocks include shale, sandstone, limestone and flint. They are shown in the image below:


Len Academy

Please read the introduction to sedimentary rocks, its formation and types here.


Below are the characteristics or features of sedimentary rocks:


  1. Sedimentary rocks are secondary rocks formed from the sediments of pre-existing rocks and fossils, that is: plant and animal remains.

  2. Sedimentary rocks are typically non-crystalline in nature. Unlike igneous rocks, they are soft and layered since they are formed from the deposition of sediments. These sediments are consolidated and compacted by cementing elements like silica, calcites and clay.
    Please read on igneous rock explained with its types here.

  3. Sedimentary rocks make up about 75% of the earth's surface. However, it is important to state that it comprises only about 5% of the earth crust. 95% of the crust is composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks.

  4. The composition of the sedimentary rocks depends upon the nature of its rock forming minerals and adhesive elements. For this reason, sedimentary rocks may be properly consolidated, poorly consolidated and even unconsolidated.
    You can read on layers of the atmosphere here.

  5. A higher percentage of sedimentary rocks are porous and permeable while a few aren't. Their porosity will depend upon the ratio between the volume of a given rock mass, its joint spaces and consolidations. The porosity of some sedimentary rocks allows them to retain oil and gas.

  6. In similarity to igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks are not found in massive forms like laccoliths, batholiths and dykes.

  7. Sedimentary rocks contain several layers or strata.
    Please read on metamorphic rock and its formation here.

  8. The layers (strata) found in sedimentary rocks are deformed as a result of lateral compressive and tensile forces. In this regard, the beds are folded and found in anticlinal and synclinal forms.

  9. Various types and sizes of sediments are deposited to form sedimentary rocks, and this occurs in patterns and systems. In this pattern, the size of sediments decreases from the littoral margins to the centre of the water bodies or sedimentation basins. These sediments are further consolidated and strengthened by cementing elements like silica, calcite, clay and iron containing compounds.

  10. Sedimentary rocks have different joints sizes which are always perpendicular to the bedding planes.
    You can read the characteristics of igneous rocks here.

  11. Sedimentation units in the sedimentary rocks are called beds. The uniformity of two beds along a bedding plane is termed conformity. The term comformity implies that both beds are similar in all respect. When two consecutive beds aren't uniform or conformal, the structure is called unconformity. The surfaces (upper and lower) of a bed are called bedding planes or bounding planes. Specifically, the upper surface of a bed is termed the upper bedding surface while the lower surface is referred to as sole . Meanwhile, understand that there are also sedimentary units within a bed.

  12. Sedimentation units (beds) having a thickness of more than 1cm are called as layers or strata while those below 1cm thickness are known as laminae. In short, several strata and laminae make up a bed. When the beds are deposited at an angle to the depositional surface, they are called cross beds or cross lamination.
    Please read on the types and characteristics of metamorphic rocks here.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 10 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Geography

Pumice - Len Academy

Pumice is a rock that floats on water

There are more stars in space than there are grains of sand on a beach

Africa on the globe hemispheres - Len Academy

Africa is the only continent with land in all four hemispheres of the globe

Venus is the only planet that spins in a clockwise direction

Black holes aren't black. They only give off a dark glow because they are constantly consuming matter

The world's quietest room is located at Microsoft's headquarters in Redmond, Washington. This Microsoft's laboratory room measures a background noise of -20.35dBA; and that's a deafening silence

The universe has a color named cosmic latte

An earthquake is more likely to happen in Japan than any other country

Only 2 countries have the color purple in their national flag. Both countries are:

Nicaragua and Dominica

With 221,800 islands, Sweden is believed to have more islands than any other country in the world.


NOTABLE POINTS IN Geography

The atmosphere consists of gases that surround the entire surface of the spherical shaped earth. The compositions of these gases are as follows:

Composition of the Atmosphere -Len Academy

  • Nitrogen (N2): 78.09%
  • Oxygen (O2): 20.95%
  • Argon (Ar): 0.93%
  • Carbon(IV)oxide (CO2): 0.036%
  • Neon (Ne): 0.002%
  • Krypto (Kr): 0.001%
  • Helium (He): 0.0005%
  • Xenon (Xe): 0.00009%
  • Hydrogen (H2): 0.00005%
  • Water Vapour: Variable

All of these gases (listed above) make up the atmosphere and are generally called air.

Please read more on the atmosphere and it's composition here

Human Geography focuses on the study of human beings, their origin, race, and how they are affected by the earth.

Human geography can be divided into the following branches:

  • Economic Geography: This aspect of human geography looks into the distribution of goods and services. Distribution of wealth across the globe is also considered here.

    Instances of economic geography include a study or research done on the richest nations on earth. During thus research, the processes accounting for their wealth are ascertained.


  • Religious Geography: It studies the origin and spread of religious groups including their beliefs.

    Instances of religious geography include the study of the Christian or Islamic religion as seen in documentaries.


  • Medical Geography: It studies the processes and events that bring about diseases and epidemics with regards to their geographical location, origin and distribution.

    As an instance, you may have heard about the geographical study and distribution of the disease 'COVID-19'. (Coronavirus is a case study here).

    Please read more on the branches of human geography here.

We have 3 main types or classes of rock based on how they are formed. These are:

1. Igneous Rock

Igneous Rock - Len Academy

 

2. Sedimentary Rock

Sedimentary Rock - Len Academy

 

3. Metamorphic Rock

Metamorphic Rock - Len Academy

Igneous rocks are formed when molten substances below the earth surface cools down and solidifies. These molten substances are called magma or lava. Magma can be derived from melting of existing rocks on the earth crust.

The solidification of molten magma into igneous rock may be below the earth's surface (intrusive) or on the earth's surface (extrusive), giving rise to the two types of igneous rock.

  • Intrusive Igneous Rock: These are igneous rocks that crystallizes below the earth’s surface. They generally cool slowly during the process of solidification and tend to produce large crystals.

    Intrusive Igneous Rocks are also referred to as plutonic igneous rocks. Examples are gabbro, granite and pegmatite.

  • Extrusive Igneous Rock: They are igneous rocks that form when molten magma erupts on top of the earth's surface. They cool down and solidify quickly, producing small crystals in the process. Sometimes, the molten magma cools so quickly, allowing no time for crystals to grow. This rapid cooling results in the formation of an amorphous glass.

    Extrusive Igneous Rocks are also referred to as volcanic igneous rocks. Examples are basalt, rhyolite and scoria.

Sedimentary rocks amount to about 76% of the earth's surface. They can be formed in different ways. These are:

  • By the deposition of the weathered remains of pre-existing rocks and their subsequent transportation and deposition. Sedimentary rocks formed in this way are known as clastic sedimentary rock.

  • By the accumulation and lithification of sediment or detrital rock.

  • By their precipitation from solution. Sedimentary rocks formed in this way are known as chemical sedimentary rock.

  • As a result of biogenic activities. Sedimentary rocks formed in this way are known as organic sedimentary rock.

Please read more on types of rocks here