Topics in BiologyDifference between plant cell and animal cell Nucleus explained with its structures Nucleus explained with its types and functions Organelles of the cell explained with their characteristics Eukaryotic cell explained with its characteristics Prokaryotic cell explained with its structure Characteristics of prokaryotic cell Concept of cell Cell theory in biology Importance and limitations of ecological pyramid Protists explained with their characteristics Contents of the scrotum: Epididymis, vas deferens, spermatic cord and cremaster muscle Tropical savanna explained with its characteristics Concept of ecological pyramid Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Male accessory sex organs: Seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands
Academic Questions in Biology
From the above diagram, which of the organ below isn't a requirement for the male reproductive system?
C. Glans Penis
E. Bulbourethral Gland
A walnut shaped male accessory sex organ located between the bladder and penis is the _____.
A. Ductus Ejaculatorii
B. Bulbourethral Gland
C. Prostate Gland
D. Ductus Deferens
E. Seminal Vesicles
In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level _____.
Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.
F. None of the above
All reptiles are vertebrates.
_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.
_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.
Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?
Deserts are generally classified into 2 types. These are:
With regards to the hotness or coldness of a desert, we can further classify them into 4 types. These are:
Cold winter or semi-arid deserts
Below are explanations on the aformentioned types of desert.
Hot deserts are located on the western coast of continents within latitudes 15o north and 30o south of the equator.
The subtropical deserts are categorized as hot deserts. In short, they are the hottest deserts in the world. (Subtropical deserts will be explained in the latter part of this article).
Note: Xerophytes are drought resistant plants. They are found in hot deserts are able to survive through special adaptive features found on them. Examples of xerophytes are cactus, wiring grasses, thorn bushes and acacia.
Hot deserts show the following characteristics or features:
Cold deserts are found in the interior of continents around 45o north and 60o south of the equator.
The cold winter deserts and polar deserts are classified as cold deserts. (Both will be explained in the latter part of this article).
It is worthy of note to state that cold deserts may not remain cold throughout the year. However, during the winter periods, they show extreme coldness in their temperatures. They can also act as a functioning ecosystem for organisms like the polar bear and fishes.
Transpiration in plants is defined as a process through which water is lost from the aerial parts of a plant; especially through the stomata present in the plant's leaf.
Water may also be lost from the plant's stem and flowers during transpiration.
They are the hottest deserts in our world. They are very hot and dry in the summer but can be a little cooler during winter. Their soils are typically sandy in nature but can also be rocky in some instances.
Note: The subtropical desert have been reported to be so hot to an extent that rainfall evaporates from the atmosphere even before they hit the ground.
Examples of subtropical deserts include the followings:
Sahara desert in North Africa
Kalahari desert in South Africa
Chihuahua desert in USA
Mojave desert in USA
Great sandy desert in Australia
Sonoran desert in USA.
The plants (xerophytes) and animals found in subtropical deserts include cactus plants, snakes and a variety of insects. They are usually more active at night.
Coastal deserts are present around the earth's coastal regions between 20o to 30o latitude of the equator. They typically have a long warm summer and a short cool winter.
Examples of coastal deserts are the Atacama desert in Chile and Namib desert in Namibia.
Cold winter deserts are also called the semi-arid deserts. As the name implies, they are characterized with a cold winter and dry summers. They also have a very low annual rainfall and snowfall. This lack of rainfall in cold winter deserts is caused by a phenomenon termed the rainshadow effect.
Think of a rainshadow effect as a process whereby moisture is prevented from reaching an area as a result of high mountains present around such area.
Examples of cold winter deserts include the Gobi desert in Mongolia and Red desert in USA.
Polar deserts are found in the arctic and antarctica regions of earth. They have a characteristic cold temperature throughout the year.
An example of a polar desert is the antarctica.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Russia is home to the largest area of forest in our world with a land mass of 815 million hectares
Giant squid lives deep in the ocean and they have the largest eyes in the world
The movements of the fingers are controlled by muscles of the palms and forehands
Platypus (sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus) is an egg-laying, semiaquatic mammal found in eastern Australia. It has no stomach and as such, its food goes from the mouth through the esophagus and directly to their intestines.
Pufferfish contain a toxin called tetrodotoxin. This makes them foul tasting and poisonous to predators. Tetrodotoxin is about 1,200 times more poisonous than cyanide, and there is enough toxin in one pufferfish to kill 30 adult humans. Unfortunately, there isn't any known antidote to this poison.
Interestingly, a delicacy in Japan (called fugu) is made from pufferfish. This meal is very expensive, and must be prepared by trained and licensed chefs. An improper preparation of fugu may lead to the customer's death. Sadly, such deaths are recorded annually
Wombats are the only animal with a cube-shaped poo. They can stack up these cube-shaped poo, marking their territory with it
Robert Wadlow (1918–1940) remains the tallest man ever recorded in the Guinness World Records. He was an American who stood at 8 feet, 11 inches.
An abnormally enlarged pituitary gland had resulted into Robert Wadlow's giant size.
Cockroach is the fastest land animal on six legs
Like humans, all apes laugh when tickled
An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain
Notable points in Biology
An artery is composed of three layers:
The outermost layer is termed tunica adventitia (or tunica external). It consist mainly of collagen fibres and connective tissues that anchors the arteries to other nearby tissues.
The middle layer is named tunica media. It is made up of smooth muscles and elastic fibres that supports the artery in conveying blood at high pressures.
The inner layer is called tunica intima (or tunica internal). It is lined by a smooth tissue called endothelium, and is made up of a fine network of connective tissues.
All living organisms possess various features in order to survive in their environment. This is the concept of adaptation. As an instance, a fish is able to live in water because it has gills and fins.
Also, a camel is able to survive in the desert because it has large feet to aid walking on sand without sinking. It also has long eyelashes to help protect it from the blowing sand and wind.
Plants are also able to live in different habitats because they have the required adaptive features towards that habitat. For instance:
Plants that live in/on water are termed hydrophytes.
Plants that live on land with moderate amount of water are termed mesophytes.
Plants that live on deserts or arid lands are termed xerophytes.
The point is:
All organisms have various features on them that enables them adapt in their habitat
For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types: