Agricultural Science

Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

Olawunmi Omosanya - Sun, 21st April, 2019 @ 18:39: PM

Gymnosperms and Angiosperms:

Gymnosperms and Angiosperms are seed bearing plants under the division of spermatophyte. The spermatophytes are also known as phanerogams or seed plants simply because they consist of all plants that produce seeds. The flowerless (without flowers) gymnosperms had first evolved before the angiosperms although the angiosperms appear to be more abundant in number and diversity after their evolution. These two groups of plants are siphonogamous, meaning that they both produce pollen grain. In this article, we will look into the differences between both groups of plants.

Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

Reproductive Differences

Gymnosperms: The reproductive structures are called cones.
Angiosperms: the reproductive structures are the flowers.

Gymnosperms: The cones are unisexual.
Angiosperms: The flowers are usually bisexual but a few can be unisexual.

Gymnosperms: The cone produces microspores and megaspores.
Angiosperms: The anther of the flower produces the microspore while the megaspores are produced by the ovules in the ovary.

Microspore are plant spores that becomes the male gametophyte and ultimately, the sperm cells while the megaspores are plant spores that becomes the female gametophyte and ultimately the egg cell.

Gymnosperms: Pollination is generally by wind.
Angiosperms: Pollination requires different agents including, wind, water insects and other animals.

Pollination refers to how pollen grains are transferred from the sexual parts of a plant.

Gymnosperms: The pollen grains will germinate on the micropyle of the ovules (direct pollination).
Angiosperms: The pollen grain germinates into the pollen tube on the stigma and the male gamete moves through this pollen tube (indirect pollination).

Gymnosperms: The fertilization process is not as complex as that of the angiosperms.
Angiosperms: The fertilization process is doubled. This means that two male gametes (sperms) fuses with the embryo sac or female gametophyte.

Gymnosperms: The endosperm is haploid.
Angiosperms: The endosperm is triploid.

The endosperm is a tissue with a high amount of nutrient found in the seeds of plants and it nourishes the embryo inside the seed. It is the embryo that germinates when a seed is planted.

Gymnosperms: The ovule develop into naked seeds.
Angiosperms: The ovule develops in seeds covered by the fruit.

Gymnosperms: No fruits are present.
Angiosperms: The ovary becomes the fruit.


Anatomical and Structural Differences

Gymnosperms: Cones are present.
Angiosperms: Flowers are present.

Gymnosperms: Sepals and petals are not present in cones
Angiosperms: Sepals and petals are parts of the floral parts of the flower

Sepals are usually green in colour and functions to protect the flower.

Petals are brightly coloured and functions to attract insect pollinators.

Gymnosperms: No stigma and Style.
Angiosperms: Stigma and Style are presents.

The stigma is a sticky component of a flower that receives the pollen grains.

The style is a tiny elongated stalk that connects the stigma to the ovary.

Gymnosperms: Fruits are not seen or formed. Only seeds are present.
Angiosperms: Fruits containing seeds are the products of sexual reproduction.

Gymnosperms: Companion cells are absent
Angiosperms: Companion cells are present and are usually found within the phloem.

Gymnosperms: The sporophyll form the cones.
Angiosperms: The sporophyll form the flowers.

The sporophyll is a leaf that forms sporangia.

Gymnosperms: Anther and filament absent.
Angiosperms: Anther and filament present ad they make up the male part of the flower called stamen.

Gymnosperms: The ovules are not present in the ovary. This is why they have no fruit.
Angiosperms: The ovules are present in the ovary. The ovary becomes the fruit while the ovules become the seed.

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