Agricultural Science

Characteristics and Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

len Alfred Ajibola - Sun, 21st April, 2019 @ 18:39: PM

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Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

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All plants are crops.

TRUE or FALSE

Gymnosperms and Angiosperms:

Gymnosperms and Angiosperms are seed bearing plants under the division of spermatophyte.

The spermatophytes are also known as phanerogams or seed plants simply because they consist of all plants that produce seeds.

Please read on various Agricultural Terms and Meanings here.

Gymnosperms do NOT possess flowers.

The flowerless gymnosperms had first evolved before the angiosperms although the angiosperms appear to be more abundant in number and diversity after their evolution.

Gymnosperms and Angiosperms are siphonogamous plants. This means that they both produce pollen grains.

In this article, we will look into the differences between both groups of plants.

 

Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

Reproductive Differences

Below are some reproductive differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms:

Gymnosperms: Their reproductive structures are called cones.

Angiosperms: Flowers are the reproductive structures in angiosperms.

Please read on Plant Reproduction and Propagation here.

Gymnosperms: Cones are unisexual.

Angiosperms: Flowers are usually bisexual but a few can be unisexual.

Gymnosperms: The cones produces microspores and megaspores.

Angiosperms: The anther of the flower produces the microspore while the megaspores are produced by the ovules in the ovary.

Microspore are plant spores that becomes the male gametophyte (pollen grains).

Megaspores are plant spores that becomes the female gametophyte and ultimately the egg cell.

Gymnosperms: Pollination is generally by wind.

Angiosperms: Pollination requires different agents including, wind, water, insects and other animals.

Pollination refers to the process involving he transfer of pollen grains from the sexual parts of a plant.

The goal of pollination is to bring about fertilization. (That is, union of pollen grain and ova/egg cell).

Gymnosperms: The pollen grains will germinate on the micropyle of the ovules. (Direct pollination).

Angiosperms: The pollen grain germinates into the pollen tube on the stigma and the male gamete moves through this pollen tube. (Indirect pollination).

Gymnosperms: The fertilization process is not as complex as that of the angiosperms.

Angiosperms: The fertilization process is doubled. This means that two male gametes fuses with the embryo sac or female gametophyte.

Gymnosperms: The endosperm is haploid.

Angiosperms: The endosperm is triploid.

The endosperm is a tissue with a high amount of nutrient found in the seeds of plants; and it nourishes the embryo inside the seed.

Note: It is the embryo that germinates when a seed is planted.

Gymnosperms: The ovule develop into naked seeds.

Angiosperms: The ovule develops into seeds enclosed in the fruit.

Gymnosperms: No fruits are present.

Angiosperms: The ovary becomes the fruit.

Please read on the Differences between Plants and Crops here.

Please read on the Male Reproductive System here.

You can attempt LEN ACADEMY Agric Examination Questions for JSS1 2nd Term here.

 

Anatomical and Structural Differences

Gymnosperms: Cones are present.

Angiosperms: Flowers are present.

Gymnosperms: Sepals and petals are not present in cones.

Angiosperms: Sepals and petals are parts of the floral parts of the flower.

Sepals are usually green in colour and are seen at the base of the flower. Their main function is to protect the flower.

Petals are the brightly coloured parts of a flower. They function to attract insect pollinators.

Gymnosperms: No Stigma and Style are present.

Angiosperms: Stigma and Style are present.

The stigma is a sticky component of a flower that receives the pollen grains.

The style is a tiny elongated stalk that connects the stigma to the ovary.

Gymnosperms: Fruits are not seen or formed. Only seeds are present.

Angiosperms: Fruits containing seeds are formed.

Gymnosperms: Companion cells are absent.

Angiosperms: Companion cells are present and are usually found within the phloem.

Gymnosperms: The sporophyll form the cones.

Angiosperms: The sporophyll form the flowers.

The sporophyll is a leaf that forms sporangia.

Gymnosperms: Anther and filament are absent.

Angiosperms: Anther and filament are present; and they make up the male part of the flower (called stamen).

Gymnosperms: The ovules are not present in the ovary. This is why the seed have no fruit.

Angiosperms: The ovules are present in the ovary. The ovary becomes the fruit while the ovules become the seed.


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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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