Agricultural Science

Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples

len Alfred Ajibola - Mon, 27th January, 2020 @ 12:25: PM

Topics in Agricultural Science

Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural Machines and their Uses Soil Erosion: Causes of Soil Erosion Ways to prevent Soil Erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Third Term Len Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term Len Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term, part 2 Definitions and Meanings of Agricutural terms (P - Q) Agricultural Terms: Definition and Meanings of Agricultural Terms (P and Q), part 2 Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term, Part 2 Roles of Government in Agriculture


Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Cordage is made from _____ crop.

  • A. Food

  • B. Fibre

  • C. Ornamental

  • D. Oil

  • E. Cash

  • F. Vegetables and Spice

_____ is defined as the solid and arable part of the earth where agricultural activities are be carried out.

  • A. Soil

  • B. Farmland

  • C. Agricultural land

  • D. Biosphere

  • E. Open land

  • F. Planting and grazing land

Gymnosperms and angiosperms are seed bearing plants under the division spermatophyta?

  • A. True

  • B. False

Which of the following is false concerning gymnosperms?

  • A. Cones are present

  • B. Sepals are present

  • C. Petals are absent

  • D. Only seeds are produced

  • E. Sporophyll form the cones

  • F. In seed formation, the ovules aren't present in the ovary

Which of the following statement is incorrect concerning seeds?

  • A. The ovary develops into the seed after fertilization

  • B. The embryo in the seed develops into a young plant

  • C. The seed's endosperm serve as a source of food reserve for the developing embryo

  • D. A seed has its own genotype

  • E. Seeds are products of sexual reproduction

  • F. Apomictic seeds aren't produced sexually and the hawkseed is an example

The _____ is the reproductive organ in plant's sexual reproduction.

  • A. Pollen grain

  • B. Ova

  • C. Sperm

  • D. Flower

  • E. Fruit

  • F. Seed

In flowering plants, fertilization occurs when the _____ comes into contact with the ova (as genetic materials are eventually exchanged).

  • A. Sperm

  • B. Endosperm

  • C. Exosperm

  • D. Stigma

  • E. Ovule

  • F. Pollen grain

The fusion of sperm and ova in animals leads to the formation of _____.

  • A. Foetus

  • B. Embryo

  • C. Ovary

  • D. Neonate

  • E. Zygote

  • F. Egg

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Asexual Propagation in Plants:

Asexual propagation in plants is defined as the breeding of a specific plant specimen through natural processes by taking a vegetative part of the parent plant or stock.

Asexual Propagation is also referred to as vegetative propagation or asexual reproduction because a vegetative part of the plant (that is; root, stem, or leaf) is taken and made to regenerate itself into a new plant. The resulting plant that forms from this process is termed a clone of the parent plant.

A clone is an offspring that is genetically identical to it’s parent; and it's associated with asexual propagation. For this reason Pollen grains and egg cell (which are associated with plant's sexual reproduction) are not required in clone formation.

You can read on Sexual Propagation in Plants here.

Note: Clone formation is the best way to retain some plant species, especially the best of their kinds.


Types of Asexual Propagation

Various techniques are used to bring about vegetative propagation (or plants' asexual reproduction). They include:

1. Grafting

Grafting requires that a part of the parent plant is cut and joined to another rooted plant so that they can grow as one plant.

The image below shows the the process of Grafting:
Grafting - Len Academy

The term scion refers to the branch of the cut plant (desired variety) that will be grafted to the other rooted plant. Such rooted plant is called the stock.

Note: Grafting is done on a stock plant, with a very strong root system.

Please read on Agricultural Terms and their Meanings here.

Grafting can be achieved through various methods: Some of these include:

  • Wedge Grafting
  • Cleft Grafting
  • Tongue Grafting
  • Bark Grafting
  • Butt Grafting
  • Side Grafting

 

2. Budding

Budding is a type of Grafting. In fact, It’s also called bud grafting.

The major difference between budding and grafting has to do with the shape on the stock on which the scion is inserted.

In budding, the part of the stock in which the scion is inserted is cut in T shape.

The image below shows an instance of budding:
Budding - Len Academy

The scion is inserted into the T shaped stock. The cut is then covered by winding a strip of polythene sheet, keeping only the bud exposed.

We have different types of budding. They include:

 

3. Cuttings

In cuttings, a part of the parent plant is severed (cut away) and planted. After some time, the severed part regenerates into a new plant. The image below shows this:
Cuttings - Len Academy

Cuttings are categorized into different types depending on the part of plant severed. They include:

  • Stem cuttings: The stem of a plant is severed and planted. For example Mint and Dahlia plants.
  • Root cuttings: The root of the plant is severed and planted. For example, breadfruit and White Poinsettia plants.
  • Leaf cuttings: A part of the plant's leaf is cut and planted. For example, African violets and Kalanchoe plants.
  • You can Attempt Len Academy Questions on Agric Science, JSS1, 1st Term here.

 

4. Layering

This technique of vegetative propagation is similar to stem cuttings. The difference is:

In normal stem cuttings, the stem (not having roots) are cut away from the parent plant before it's planted.

In layering, the stem is first allowed to develop roots. (These roots must be formed on the stem of the mother plant for layering to occur). Only after the formation of the root can we cut off the stem and plant it.

Below is an image showing the process of layering:
Layering - Len Academy

We have different types of Layering. They are:

 

5. Separation

Separation applies to plant that produce corms and bulbs.

During separation, the new shoot (part of the plant above the root) is first detached (or separated) from the parent plant before it's planted. The bulbs of tulip and lily plants can be separated in this way.

The image below shows the process of separation:
Layering - Len Academy

Note: Certain bulbs may also produce smaller bulbs termed bulblets. The bulblets are always attached to the base of the parent bulb and can be easily separated in order to bring about vegetative propagation.

Please read on the Differences between Plants and Crops here.

Another instance of separation is seen in cormels. The cormels refer to little or baby corms that attach to the parent corm and these can also be separated for the purpose of vegetative propagation.

 

5. Division

Division is quite different from separation. In division, different parts of the plant (having buds) is divided into two or more parts (or sections). Each of the section is then planted to produce an independent plant.

Examples of plants the can be propagated via division are the rhizomes of the iris and lily plants. Also, stem tubers like yams and potatoes with the presence of buds in various sections can also be propagated through division.

Below is an image of Kangaroo Paw Rhizome that had undergone division:
Layering - Len Academy

Division is generally used in asexual propagation when a cluster of plants are cut away into small units. When planted, the isolated units will grow into a parent plant.

You can Attempt Len Academy Questions on Agric Science, JSS1, 2nd Term here.

Note: The process of division (in asexual propagation) does not occur naturally.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

Peanuts are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments

Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them

Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd


NOTABLE POINTS IN Agricultural Science

Below are some common types of erosion:

  • Water Erosion: It is caused by rainfall and flooding on the topsoil. As a result of water erosion, some layers of the topsoil are lost.

  • Sheet Erosion: When an entire surface of land becomes eroded at a uniform (equal) level, such is referred to as sheet erosion. It is shown below:
    Sheet Erosion - Len Academy

  • Wind Erosion: It results from the actions of wind on a bare land. Wind erosion is often seen in deserts. Overgrazing and lack of vegetation cover will also enhance wind erosion on topsoil.

Please read more on types of soil erosion here.

Soil erosion is defined as a process through which the topsoil is removed or moved from one point to another by agents like wind, water, man and animals.

Soil erosion occurs naturally (wind and water) and may also be facilitated by living organisms.

Soil erosion is more likely to occur on a sloppy land and land with no vegetation cover. When this occurs, the nutrient rich layer of the topsoil is washed away; and this ultimately results in fewer plants growing on such eroded soil.

Please read more on soil erosion here

There are about 630 different kinds of carnivorous plants.

Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients by consuming small animals, especially insects.

Carnivorous plants are also referred to as insectivorous plants.

Examples of carnivorous plants include sundew and Venus flytrap.

Please read more on carnivorous plants here