Agricultural Science

Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics

len Alfred Ajibola - 10th January, 2023 @ 01:52 PM

Topics in Agricultural Science

Types of agricultural practices Crop rotation explained Benefits of crop rotation Differences between subsistence and commercial farming Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics What is commercial farming? Types of commercial farming Characteristics of commercial farming Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural machines and their uses Causes of soil erosion Ways to prevent soil erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Third Term


Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

_____ is a term that describes the biological, chemical and cultural control tactics employed to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable.

  • A. Integrated Pest Management

  • B. Integral Pest Management

  • C. International Pest Management

  • D. Inclusive Pest Management

  • E. Imbibed Pest Management

  • F. Inclusion Pest Management

Cordage is made from _____ crop.

  • A. Food

  • B. Fibre

  • C. Ornamental

  • D. Oil

  • E. Cash

  • F. Vegetables and Spice

_____ is defined as the solid and arable part of the earth where agricultural activities are be carried out.

  • A. Soil

  • B. Farmland

  • C. Agricultural land

  • D. Biosphere

  • E. Open land

  • F. Planting and grazing land

Gymnosperms and angiosperms are seed bearing plants under the division spermatophyta?

  • A. True

  • B. False

Which of the following is false concerning gymnosperms?

  • A. Cones are present

  • B. Sepals are present

  • C. Petals are absent

  • D. Only seeds are produced

  • E. Sporophyll form the cones

  • F. In seed formation, the ovules aren't present in the ovary

Which of the following statement is incorrect concerning seeds?

  • A. The ovary develops into the seed after fertilization

  • B. The embryo in the seed develops into a young plant

  • C. The seed's endosperm serve as a source of food reserve for the developing embryo

  • D. A seed has its own genotype

  • E. Seeds are products of sexual reproduction

  • F. Apomictic seeds aren't produced sexually and the hawkseed is an example

The _____ is the reproductive organ in plant's sexual reproduction.

  • A. Pollen grain

  • B. Ova

  • C. Sperm

  • D. Flower

  • E. Fruit

  • F. Seed

In flowering plants, fertilization occurs when the _____ comes into contact with the ova (as genetic materials are eventually exchanged).

  • A. Sperm

  • B. Endosperm

  • C. Exosperm

  • D. Stigma

  • E. Ovule

  • F. Pollen grain


Subsistence Agriculture:

Subsistence agriculture is defined as a form of farming whereby crops are planted, and livestock raised for the purpose of consumption by the farmer and their family.

From the above definition, it can be seen that subsistence farming is typically carried out on a small piece of land. Also, the farmer utilizes simple farm tools to carry out their agricultural activities which is intended only for themselves and their families.

Please read on agricultural tools and their uses here.

 

Recall that agriculture is generally into two types. These are:

  1. Agriculture based on the level of production.

  2. Agriculture based on locality.

    You can read on agricultural terms and their meanings here.

     

 

Agriculture based on the level of production simple refers to the scale or degree at which the farmer carry out agricultural activities. This could be at a small scale (subsistence agriculture ), or at a large scale (commercial agriculture).

Please read on commercial agriculture here.


Subsistence agriculture is also referred to as peasant farming. The concept of subsistence farming can easily be summarized based on its characteristics.

 

Characteristics of subsistence farming

  1. The farmer may grows crops, rears animals or carry out both simultaneously for family consumption.
    You can read on the difference between plants and crop here.


  2. Farming activities is carried out on a small piece of land.


  3. Agricultural machines are not utilized in subsistence farming, rather simple farm tools are used. They include cutlass, bolo, spade and so on.
    Please read on agricultural machines and their uses here.


  4. The farmer typically plants different type of crops as needed by the family. Mixed cropping is therefore practiced in subsistence farming.


  5. The farmer does not pay salaries to workers since the farming work is done by themselves and their family.


  6. Food crops, fruits, vegetables spices and other medicinal crops are grown in subsistence farming.
    Please read on resources from living things (plants) here.


  7. The harvest made in subsistence farming is not large enough for commercial activities.


  8. Little capital is required to practice subsistence farming.
    Please read on the problems of agriculture in Nigeria here.


  9. Farmers that practices subsistence farming may still be left with few crops which they can choose to sell.


  10. Fertilizers and other agrochemicals may be used, but only in small amounts.
    You can attempt Len Academy agric science questions here.


  11. The crops grown and animals reared are usually not the best of their respective variety.
    Please read on the characteristics of commercial farming here.

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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum

Peanuts are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments

Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them

Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd


NOTABLE POINTS IN Agricultural Science

Secateurs are agricultural tools.

Secateurs - Len Academy

  • Secateurs are also referred to as pruning shears or hand pruners.

  • It looks like a pair of scissors.

  • It’s used for trimming flowers and leaves.

  • It is also used for pruning the branches of shrubs.

An example of an agricultural tool is the hoe. It is shown below:

Hoe - Len Academy

  • We have a variety of hoes.

  • They are generally used for tilling the soil.

  • They are used for making trenches in farmlands.

  • A hoe is utilized in harvesting crops like yam and cocoyam

  • They are also used for cutting weeds on farmlands.

Please read on agricultural tools and their uses here

Fish Farming

Pisciculture, fish farming or fish rearing is a great business to begin as an entrepreneur.

Below are some reasons why one should embark on fish farming:

  • There is always a great demand for fish in the market.

  • You don't need a degree or qualification.

  • It is a profitable business if done right.

  • You are your own boss.

  • You can always get a fish specie that grows fast; and with a high marketability ratio.

  • Water is very cheap.

  • You can do it yourself if you abide by the fish farming rules.

Please read how to start a home based fish farming here.

Below are some agricultural terms and their meanings:

  • Agriculture: Agriculture is defined as a science that deals with plant and animal farming; including the cultivation of the soil for the purpose of growing crops and rearing animals to provide food for man, raw materials for industries and other useful resources; for example, oxygen.

  • Agricultural Extension: These are cooperative bodies that work with the federal and state agencies to carry out research and education for rural and urban producer and consumer groups. Agricultural extension is achieved through the cooperative's specialist personnel for each area of the state or country.

  • Agronomy: This is defined as the science of crop production and soil management.

  • Alfalfa: A leguminous crop used for forage or hay in livestock farming.

  • Algicides: These are pesticide used for controlling and killing algae. Algae are usually present in lakes, canals, damp walls, swimming pools, water tanks and other water related bodies.

    Please read on agricultural terms and meanings here.

Below are some common types of erosion:

  • Water Erosion: It is caused by rainfall and flooding on the topsoil. As a result of water erosion, some layers of the topsoil are lost.

  • Sheet Erosion: When an entire surface of land becomes eroded at a uniform (equal) level, such is referred to as sheet erosion. It is shown below:
    Sheet Erosion - Len Academy

  • Wind Erosion: It results from the actions of wind on a bare land. Wind erosion is often seen in deserts. Overgrazing and lack of vegetation cover will also enhance wind erosion on topsoil.

Please read more on types of soil erosion here.