Agricultural Science

Definitions and Meanings of Agricutural terms

len Alfred Ajibola - Thu, 24th January, 2019 @ 7:11 PM

Topics in Agricultural Science

Clay soil explained with its types and characteristics Loamy soil explained with its characteristics Sandy soil: Characteristics of sandy soil and ways to make it fertile Soil explained with its composition Types of agricultural practices Crop rotation explained Benefits of crop rotation Differences between subsistence and commercial farming Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics What is commercial farming? Types of commercial farming Characteristics of commercial farming Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural machines and their uses Causes of soil erosion Ways to prevent soil erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples

Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

The ideal pH for the optimum growth of most agricultural crop is between _____.

  • A. 1 – 3.5

  • B. 4 – 5.5

  • C. 6 – 7.5

  • D. 8 – 9.5

  • E. 10 – 11.5

  • F. 12 – 13.5

People who go about their lives by raising and herding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats are said to practice _____.

  • A. Pastoralism

  • B. Pasturalism

  • C. Herding

  • D. Herdsmen

  • E. Animalism

  • F. Anime Farming

The act of giving birth in pigs is called _____.

  • A. Calving

  • B. Piggery

  • C. Kidding

  • D. Farrowing

  • E. Calfing

  • F. Pigging

Which of the following is not a vegetable?

  • A. Cashew

  • B. Cocumber

  • C. Tomatoes

  • D. Carrot

  • E. Squash

  • F. Eggplant

All plants are crops.

  • A. True

  • B. False

In agriculture, macronutrients are essential nutrients required by plants. Which of the following is not a macronutrient?

  • A. Zinc

  • B. Sulphur

  • C. Calcium

  • D. Phosphorus

  • E. Potassium

  • F. Magnesium

Which of the following is false concerning micronutrients?

  • A. They are non-essential nutrients

  • B. They are required by plants in minute quantities

  • C. Iron is a micronutrient

  • D. Chlorine is a micronutrient

  • E. Copper is a micronutrient

  • F. Boron is a micronutrient

_____ is a term that describes the biological, chemical and cultural control tactics employed to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable.

  • A. Integrated Pest Management

  • B. Integral Pest Management

  • C. International Pest Management

  • D. Inclusive Pest Management

  • E. Imbibed Pest Management

  • F. Inclusion Pest Management

Agricultural Terms:

Agricultural science as a subject comes with a variety of technical terms. Understanding the definitions and meanings of various agricutural terms will make this subject easier and comprehensible for you.

In this article, we will look at the various agricutural terms and the meanings for the alphabet 'A'.

Below are the various agricutural terms (alphabet 'A'):

  • Abortions (plant)

This is the premature termination of the developing pollen grains, ova, gametes, embryos, seeds, fruits, flowers and other growing parts of a plant.

  • Acid Soil

A soil is considered to be acidic when its pH value is less than 7.

Understand that the term 'pH' means the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a medium. It is written as a small letter 'p' and a capital letter 'H'.

  • Accelerated Erosion

This is an erosion that occurs at a faster rate than the normal erosion, natural erosion and geologic erosion; and it occurs mainly from man's activity, animal's activity or natural catastrophes that exposes the bare surfaces of the soil.

Meanwhile, recall that erosion is the removal of the soil's top layer

Please read more on soil erosion here.

  • Acre

An acre is a parcel of land with the size of 4,840 square yards or 43,560 square feet.

  • Aerenchyma

These are intercellular or gaseous spaces that are present in the cortical tissues of aquatic plants' leaves, stems and root.

Gaseous exchanges in aquatic plants are facilitated via the aerenchyma.

  • Afforestation

Afforestation is the planting of trees (or tree crops) on an area of land with few or no trees.

You can read on agricultural terms and meanings (I-O).

  • After-Ripening

This is a period of dormancy that occurs after the formation of seed in a fruit. The process of after-ripening is important for the changes that ensures the germination of embryo.

The plant's embryo is present inside the seed.

  • Agribusiness

This is a business that earns its revenue from agricutural activities.

You can read on how to start a home based fish farming business here.

  • Agriculture

Agriculture is a science that deals with plant and animal farming; including the cultivation of the soil for the purpose of growing crops and rearing animals to provide food for man, raw materials for industries and other useful products.

You can attempt Len Academy agric questions for JSS1 here.

  • Agricultural Biotechnology

This is the science of using living organisms, cells or other cell constituents to develop agriculture and agricultural products.

  • Agricultural Engineering

This is the science that involves the design of agricultural machinery and equipment, which are useful for various agricutural operations.

Agricutural machineries produced from agricutural engineering includes harvesters, ploughing machines and tractors.

Please read on agricutural tools and their uses here.

  • Agricultural Extension

These are cooperative bodies that work with the federal and state agencies to carry out research and education for rural and urban producer and consumer groups. Agricultural extension is achieved through the cooperative's specialist personnel for each area of the state or country.

  • Agronomy

This is defined as the science of crop production and soil management.

  • Alfalfa

A leguminous crop used for forage or hay in livestock farming.

  • Algicides

These are pesticide used for controlling and killing algae.

Algae are usually present in lakes, canals, damp walls, swimming pools, water tanks and other water related bodies.

Please read on pest of agricutural importance here.

  • Alkaline Soil

A soil is considered to be alkaline when its pH value is greater than 7.

  • Alley Cropping

This is a cropping system that involves the growing of closely planted trees or shrubs between lines (usually 6 meters in width).

The crops grown in alley cropping are frequently pruned in order to provide nutrients to the crops in the alley.

  • Alternative Farming

This is a farming method that employs the use of non-chemical intensive farming practice.

An instance of alternative farming is seen when a farmer uses animal and green manure as fertilizers rather than using a chemical intensive fertilizer like NPK.

Another instance is where a farmer controls pest by using biological systems (that is; through animals) rather than the chemical intensive pesticides.

You can read on agricutural pest, crops attacked and their economic importance.

  • Animal Byproducts

These are carcasses of farm animals (poultry or livestock) that can be processed by cooking, drying, curing or roasting.

  • Animal Unit

This is a unit used for the measurement of livestock; with an equivalent of one mature cow weighing 1,000 lbs.

The animal unit is used in making comparisons of feed consumption.

Note: Five mature ewes are also considered as an animal unit.

  • Annual Plant

This is a plant that completes its life cycle from seed to plant, flower, and new seed in 1 year or less.

Please read on differences between plants and crops here.

  • Apiary

These are domesticated colonies of bees in hives and other beekeeping equipment for the purpose of producing honey.

  • Aquatic Plant Culture

This refers to the cultivation of aquatic plants for the purpose of food, drugs or something beneficial to man.

  • Aquatic Plants

These are plants that live in water.

Aquatic Plants grow in water either by floating on its surface, partially embedding its roots and stem in the water or growing under the surface of the water.

  • Arid Land

This is a barren land or a desert or a semi-desert characterised by its dryness and very low annual rainfall.

Please read on desert and its characteristics here.

  • Artificial Insemination

This is the mechanical injection of male semen into the womb of the female with a special syringe-like apparatus.

Artificial insemination is practiced extensively in dairy husbandry.

  • Autotrophs

These are organisms that can produce organic matter (food) from inorganic substances.

Understand that plants are photosynthetic autotrophs that manufacture their food through sunlight energy trapped by the chlorophyll present in the chloroplast of the leaves. The process involved is termed photosynthesis

Please read on autotrophic mode of nutrition here.

  • Auger

This is a spiral device on a shaft used to move grains through a tube.

  • Auxins

They are plants' growth hormones and can be natural or synthetic.

Auxins regulates plants' growth and development.

  • Avian

They are related to birds, that is: fowl, guinea fowl and turkey.

Please read on agricultural terms and eanings (P-Q).

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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum

Peanuts are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments

Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them

Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd

Notable points in Agricultural Science

Below are characteristics of gymnosperms:

  1. Their seeds have cones that protect them.

  2. Sepals and petals aren't present in their cones.

  3. Stigma and style are absent.

  4. They do not produce fruits. Only seeds are formed.

  5. Companion cells are absent.

  6. Sporophyll form the cones.

  7. Anther and filament are absent.

  8. The ovules are not present in the ovary.

  9. Gymnosperms do not possess flowers.

  10. Please read on the anatomical differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms here

The flower is the reproductive organ in plants' sexual reproduction. In order to achieve a successful sexual propagation or reproduction in plants, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.

The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:

  1. Sepals

  2. Petals

  3. Stamen

  4. Carpel

The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.

The carpel (or pistil) is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.

Please read more on plants' sexual reproduction here

An organism will be considered a pest if it does one of the followings:

  • Attack crops and eat its seeds, roots, stem, leaves and flowers. Examples are locust and grasshoppers.

  • Cause damage to stored food, fruits or other agricultural produce. Some may even urinate or deaficate on these products. Examples are rodents, cockroaches and mice.

  • Attack and kill farm animals like goats, sheep and cattle. Examples are foxes, wild cats and snakes.

  • Act as disease vectors. A vector is an organism that carries parasite and other disease causing organisms, without being affected; but when they introduce the parasites into their host, such host becomes infected with disease. Examples of vectors are rodents and mosquitoes.

    Please read more on vectors of diseases here.

Below are the classification of crops based on their uses:

  • Oil crops

  • Vegetable crops

  • Latex crops

  • Drug and Medicinal crops

  • Beverage crops

  • Fibre crops

  • Fruit crops

  • Root and Tubers

  • Legumes

  • Spices

  • Cereals

All crops are plants but not all plants are crops. Below are some instances:

  • Weeds are considered as plants, not crops.

  • Parasitic plants are not necessarily crops. Examples of parasitic plants include mistletoe, corpse flower and striga.

  • Carnivorous or insectivorous plants are not necessarily crops. Examples are sundew, venus flytrap and pitcher plant. The image below shows a carnivorous plant (venus flytrap).

Venus flytrap - Len Academy


Meanwhile, always understand that all crops are plants, and they are grown for food, money or something beneficial.

Please read on plants versus crops here