Topics in Agricultural ScienceTypes of agricultural practices Crop rotation explained Benefits of crop rotation Differences between subsistence and commercial farming Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics What is commercial farming? Types of commercial farming Characteristics of commercial farming Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural machines and their uses Causes of soil erosion Ways to prevent soil erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Third Term
Academic Questions in Agricultural Science
_____ is a term that describes the biological, chemical and cultural control tactics employed to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable.
A. Integrated Pest Management
B. Integral Pest Management
C. International Pest Management
D. Inclusive Pest Management
E. Imbibed Pest Management
F. Inclusion Pest Management
Cordage is made from _____ crop.
F. Vegetables and Spice
_____ is defined as the solid and arable part of the earth where agricultural activities are be carried out.
C. Agricultural land
E. Open land
F. Planting and grazing land
Gymnosperms and angiosperms are seed bearing plants under the division spermatophyta?
Which of the following is false concerning gymnosperms?
A. Cones are present
B. Sepals are present
C. Petals are absent
D. Only seeds are produced
E. Sporophyll form the cones
F. In seed formation, the ovules aren't present in the ovary
Which of the following statement is incorrect concerning seeds?
A. The ovary develops into the seed after fertilization
B. The embryo in the seed develops into a young plant
C. The seed's endosperm serve as a source of food reserve for the developing embryo
D. A seed has its own genotype
E. Seeds are products of sexual reproduction
F. Apomictic seeds aren't produced sexually and the hawkseed is an example
The _____ is the reproductive organ in plant's sexual reproduction.
A. Pollen grain
In flowering plants, fertilization occurs when the _____ comes into contact with the ova (as genetic materials are eventually exchanged).
F. Pollen grain
Commercial agriculture is defined as a type of farming whereby crops are grown and animals reared for selling purposes, that is; in order to make profit. It is purely an agricultural business, and thus may also be referred to as agribusiness.
Crops planted for commercial farming include wheat, oil palm, cocoa, rubber, cotton, sugarcane, cashew, rice and maize. These may be sold locally (within the country), or exported to other countries.
Animals reared for the purpose of commercial farming include poultry, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, fishes and snails.
Crops planted and animals reared through commercial farming serves as food for man, raw materials for industries and source of foreign exchange. For instance, cotton is a product of commercial farming; and it serves as a raw material in the textile industry. It may also be exported to other countries, generating foreign exchange through the process.
Animal skin (hides and skin) serves as raw materials in commercial quantities for the production of bags, shoes and belts. Also, these animals may be sold as food for man.
Commercial farming can be categorized into different types or forms. They include:
Crop Farming: This involves the farming of commercial crops like grains, fruits and vegetables in large quantities. Examples of grain crops include wheat, corn, barley and rice.
Please read on the differences between plants and crops here.
Dairy Farming: It involves the rearing of animals for the purpose of their milk. These animals include cattle, sheep and goats. Milk serves various purposes in our daily lives, and can further be processed into a variety products; for example, butter and cheese.
Livestock Farming: This is a commercial farming that focuses on meat production. Animals reared for this purpose include cattle, sheep, goats and pigs.
Poultry Farming: This Is a form of animal husbandry whereby birds like chickens, turkey and geese are reared for their meat or eggs. Report has it that over 60 billion chickens are consumed annually.
Please read on how to start a home based fish farming here.
Plantation Farming: A plantation refers to a large piece of land on which specialized cash crops are planted for commercial purposes. Examples of plantations include, cocoa, wheat, cashew, oil palm and rubber plantations respectively.
Mixed Farming: Crops and animals are grown on the same piece of land. These crops may be grown to feed the animals. On the other hand, dung (waste from animals) serves as manure for the soil, supporting the crop's growth. However, the animals are reared for commercial purposes.
Please read the characteristics of commercial farming here.
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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science
Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum
Peanuts are legumes and not nuts
Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments
Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them
Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs
A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.
People just prefer to call them herd
NOTABLE POINTS IN Agricultural Science
Secateurs are agricultural tools.
Secateurs are also referred to as pruning shears or hand pruners.
It looks like a pair of scissors.
It’s used for trimming flowers and leaves.
It is also used for pruning the branches of shrubs.
An example of an agricultural tool is the hoe. It is shown below:
We have a variety of hoes.
They are generally used for tilling the soil.
They are used for making trenches in farmlands.
A hoe is utilized in harvesting crops like yam and cocoyam
They are also used for cutting weeds on farmlands.
Pisciculture, fish farming or fish rearing is a great business to begin as an entrepreneur.
Below are some reasons why one should embark on fish farming:
There is always a great demand for fish in the market.
You don't need a degree or qualification.
It is a profitable business if done right.
You are your own boss.
You can always get a fish specie that grows fast; and with a high marketability ratio.
Water is very cheap.
You can do it yourself if you abide by the fish farming rules.
Below are some agricultural terms and their meanings:
Agriculture: Agriculture is defined as a science that deals with plant and animal farming; including the cultivation of the soil for the purpose of growing crops and rearing animals to provide food for man, raw materials for industries and other useful resources; for example, oxygen.
Agricultural Extension: These are cooperative bodies that work with the federal and state agencies to carry out research and education for rural and urban producer and consumer groups. Agricultural extension is achieved through the cooperative's specialist personnel for each area of the state or country.
Agronomy: This is defined as the science of crop production and soil management.
Alfalfa: A leguminous crop used for forage or hay in livestock farming.
Algicides: These are pesticide used for controlling and killing algae. Algae are usually present in lakes, canals, damp walls, swimming pools, water tanks and other water related bodies.
Below are some common types of erosion:
Water Erosion: It is caused by rainfall and flooding on the topsoil. As a result of water erosion, some layers of the topsoil are lost.
Sheet Erosion: When an entire surface of land becomes eroded at a uniform (equal) level, such is referred to as sheet erosion. It is shown below:
Wind Erosion: It results from the actions of wind on a bare land. Wind erosion is often seen in deserts. Overgrazing and lack of vegetation cover will also enhance wind erosion on topsoil.