Topics in Basic ScienceResources from living things Resources from animals Importance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Microorganisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs
Academic Questions in Basic Science
Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.
With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.
A. International bodies
Disease causing organisms are termed _____.
E. Disease carriers
F. All the above options are correct
____ is formed from a reaction utilizing oxygen and glucose in the mitochondria of cells.
Which of the following statement is false concerning carbohydrates?
A. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only
B. Carbon has the highest ratio of the constituent elements of carbohydrates
C. All carbohydrates are sugars
D. Fructose is a carbohydrate
E. Natural milk contains lactose and it's a carbohydrate
F. Fatty foods contains high calories of energy when compared to the same quantity of carbohydrate foods
Which of the following is a class of food?
Brachiation is a specialized form of movement exhibited by _____.
A. Human beings
_____ is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs.
B. Duo Pedalism
C. Double Pedalism
D. Dual Pedalism
A variety of useful resources or products utilized by humans are derived from plants and animals. Recall that plants and animals are classified as living things (or living organisms).
Resources from animals refer to useful materials derived from livestock and other animals for the beneficial use of man. These include cattle, sheep, goats, chickens, turkeys, pigs, horses, donkeys, camels, rabbits, elephants and so on.
The resources humans derive from animals and utilizes for their use are explained below:
1. Food (Meat, Fish and Egg): These are great sources of protein in our diet. They are important for growth and repair of worn out tissues. Example of animals reared for meat include pigs, chickens, turkeys, cattle, sheep and goats. Animals reared for fish are tilapia, catfish, carp, tuna and salmon respectively.
Eggs are great sources of protein in human diet, and these are derived from poultry. Poultry birds include chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, ducks and geese.
2. Dairy Products: They are also referred to as milk products or lacticinia. Simply put, they are products made from the milk of cattle, nanny goats, ewe and water buffalo. Such products include yoghurt, butter, cheese and canned milk. They are highly nutritious to humans.
3. Hides and Skin: They are derived from the skin of animals after they had been dried, tanned and processed. Specifically, hides are gotten from the 'skin' of large animals like cattle, buffalo, horses, camels, crocodiles and alligators while skin are made from the 'skin' of small animals like rabbits, goats, snakes and pigs. They are used in the manufacture of leather products like belts, shoes, bags, furniture and sports equipment.
4. Beast of Burden: These are animals utilized by humans to carry heavy loads for their benefit. They can also function to pull heavy objects like a plow or cart for man's benefits. Animals like donkey, camel, horse, ox and mule are examples of beast of burden.
5. Wool: They form a protective covering on sheep and other hairy animals like camelids, rabbits and goats. When processed in the textile industry, they can be used to make clothes, carpets, blankets and upholsteries.
Wool on Sheep
Note: About 90% of the world's wool are derived from sheep. The wool from one sheep is termed a fleece. Those from many sheep are referred to as clip.
6. Dung: A dung refers to the feces of animals like cattles, sheep, goats, pigs, horses and chickens. These can be used as organic manure on farmlands. In this regard, they add organic matter and other nutrients like nitrogen to the soil. They also increase the population of beneficial soil bacteria and fungi.
7. Medicine: Certain products derived from animals may be used as medicines. Examples are calcium from animal bones, iron from animal blood, dessicated thyroid and heparin derived from pigs, premarin derived from horses, gelatin capsules derived from the cartilage of animals, vitamin D3 and lanolin from sheep.
8. Tusk: The tusks of elephant have been found to be precious to humans, especially in Africa. They are used to manufacture ivory, which has served as important cultural artifacts. They can also be used to make jeweleries.
Below are images of ivory made from elephant tusk.
Note: The African forest elephant (loxodonta cyclotis) is listed as critically endangered specie on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list. They should therefore be protected and their indiscriminate killings prohibited by law.
9. Bones: The bones of animals can be processed into bone powder or bone paste. These may be used as health-care products, dietary supplements in animals and raw materials for other products. Bones may also be used to manufacture flutes, buttons, fertilizers and weapons.
10. Horns: Animal horns have shown to be useful especially in ancient times. They have been used as musical instruments, for example, the shofar made from the horn of a ram. Horns may also be utilized for drinking purposes in some traditions.
The horns of antelopes have also been used to produce traditional Chinese medicines. Also, we see the usage of horns in furniture and home decorations.
11. Feather: Feathers are derived from poultry birds. They are used to manufacture decorative products like costume accessories, earrings, fans, masks, boas, flowers and hats.
12. Seashell (Shell): Seashells contain large amounts of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). This can be used as food supplements, drugs, animal feeds (for poultry) and construction materials. They are also used for water purification process and in the manufacture of plastics and organic fertilizers.
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Amazing facts in Basic Science
Of all animals, mosquitoes hold the record of killing most humans annually. They are responsible for the deaths of 725,000 - 1,000,000 persons yearly
Antibiotics fights and kills bacteria. However, they do nothing to a virus
All insects have six legs. However, dragonfly has six legs but can't walk
The chin is defined as the protruding part of the face below the mouth, formed by the apex of the lower lip. It is shown below:
Interestingly, humans are the only animals with chin
Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water
Tomatoes and Avocados are fruits, not vegetables
Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.
Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell
Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack
The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6
Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear
NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a score derived from a set of standardized tests developed to measure a person's cognitive abilities in relation to their age group.
IQ may also be defined as the ratio of mental age (MA) to chronological age (CA) multiplied by 100.
Below are some formulas pertaining Intelligence Quotient:
IQ = MA x 100 ÷ CA
MA = Mental age
CA = Chronological age
IQ above 100 = Brilliance
IQ that equals 100 = Average
IQ below 100 = Below Average
Among all organisms in the universe, the human brain is the most developed. This highly developed brain present in humans is the biggest factor that makes them unique from every other organism on earth.
According to research, the more folds a brain has, the more intelligent the organism possessing it will become. To this end, humans have brains with the greatest number of folds (or bumps) called gyri and grooves (or indentations) called sulci.
Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.
Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:
The waste block drainages hence resulting to flooding, especially during the rainy seasons.
Please read on erosion here.
They generate bad smells which can be dangerous to health.
They constitute nuisance and eyesore.
They become homes to various disease causing organisms.
Please read on vectors of diseases here.
Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:
Animal product waste
The African Star Apple is a seasonal fruit that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It's fondly called African Cherry, Agbalumo or Udara in some parts of Nigeria.
Below are some benefits of the African Star Apple:
It contains high amount of vitamin C
It contains a high amount of calcium
It contains high amount of potassium
It is a powerful antioxidant
It aids in weight reduction
It contains a high amount of iron
Its leaves, fruits and seeds are medicinal
It aids digestion and prevents vomiting