Topics in GeographyBranches of Geography: Physical and Environmental Geography Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Classification | Types of Planets and their Characteristics Planets of the Solar System with their Characteristics Functions of the Atmosphere Layers of the Atmosphere Solar System in Geography Atmosphere: Composition of the Atmosphere What is Geography? Branches of Geography Characteristics and Examples of Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks
Academic Questions in Geography
Earth's distance from the sun is approximately _____ million kilometers.
Which of the following is not a branch of physical geography?
A. Economic Geography
B. Religious Geography
C. Social Geography
D. Resource Geography
E. Settlement Geography
F. Industrial Geography
Water resource geography is a branch under physiography.
With regards to ozone, which of the following is incorrect?
A. Ozone is a triatomic molecule
B. Ozone layer aids in preventing excess ultraviolet radiation from reaching the earth
C. Ozone is a natural greenhouses gas
D. Ozone comprises of oxygen molecules only
E. Ozone layer brings about a global warming on earth
F. Ozone is present in the stratosphere
The atmosphere makes the followings possible on earth except _____.
D. Ultraviolet rays
E. Global communication
The interface forming a boundary between the stratosphere and mesosphere is termed _____.
Which layer of atmosphere is closest to the earth?
Argon makes up _____ percent of the atmosphere.
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The solar system is defined as a system comprising the sun, all the planets that revolve around it including their moons, the comets, meteoroids, asteroids and interplanetary medium.
From the above definition, we can list the contents of the solar system into the followings:
The image below gives us an idea on the concept of the solar system.
The interplanetary medium (IPM) are small scattered particles that exists between the planets and other constituent bodies of the solar system. It's consists mainly of gas and dust.
The sun (which is over 300,000 times bigger than the earth) is a star. In fact, it is an average sized star. This will imply that there are other stars which are bigger than the sun.
The closest star to the sun is called Proxima Centauri; with a distance of about over 4.3 light years away from it.
The sun is the greatest source of light and heat in the universe. For this reason, it becomes the ultimate source of energy on earth; and the reason for life's existence on earth.
The solar system is contained in the universe. The universe is unimaginably big, such that not all of it can be seen. An object that moves through the space of the universe will likely do so forever.
Our galaxy (called the Milky Way) contains over 220 billion stars; and it’s only one of the billions of galaxies in the observable universe.
All the planets (including most of the planet’s satellite) and asteroids revolve round (orbit) the sun. The orbital plane around the sun on which the planets revolve or orbit is called an ecliptic.
Below is a diagram showing the solar system (including the ecliptic and each planet's satellite):
The average distance between the earth and the sun is about 149.6 million kilometers. It will take the earth 365 one-quarter days (or 1 year) to make a complete orbit (or revolve) round the sun. This process is referred as the revolution of the earth.
The revolution of the earth is responsible for the seasonal changes we experience here (on earth). That is; rainy and dry seasons in Nigeria and other parts of Africa. Understand that other continents have got their respective seasons; for instance; we have the spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons in Europe. Similarly, the United States of America have got spring, summer, fall and winter as the respective seasons.
A satellite is a body that revolves round (or orbit) the earth or another planet. It can be natural or artificial. The moon is the natural satellite of planets in the solar system.
It is important to understand that the planets, moons, stars and other elements in space are held in place by gravity.
Thirteen (13) planets make up the solar system. Nine of these are categorized (considered as the official planets) while four are uncategorized.
The 9 categorized planets beginning from the closest to the sun are:
Below are the 4 uncategorized planets:
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Amazing facts in Geography
Pumice is a rock that floats on water
There are more stars in space than there are grains of sand on a beach
Africa is the only continent with land in all four hemispheres of the globe
Venus is the only planet that spins in a clockwise direction
Black holes aren't black. They only give off a dark glow because they are constantly consuming matter
The world's quietest room is located at Microsoft's headquarters in Redmond, Washington. This Microsoft's laboratory room measures a background noise of -20.35dBA; and that's a deafening silence
The universe has a color named cosmic latte
An earthquake is more likely to happen in Japan than any other country
Only 2 countries have the color purple in their national flag. Both countries are:
Nicaragua and Dominica
With 221,800 islands, Sweden is believed to have more islands than any other country in the world.
NOTABLE POINTS IN Geography
The atmosphere consists of gases that surround the entire surface of the spherical shaped earth. The compositions of these gases are as follows:
All of these gases (listed above) make up the atmosphere and are generally called air.
Human Geography focuses on the study of human beings, their origin, race, and how they are affected by the earth.
Human geography can be divided into the following branches:
Economic Geography: This aspect of human geography looks into the distribution of goods and services. Distribution of wealth across the globe is also considered here.
Instances of economic geography include a study or research done on the richest nations on earth. During thus research, the processes accounting for their wealth are ascertained.
Religious Geography: It studies the origin and spread of religious groups including their beliefs.
Instances of religious geography include the study of the Christian or Islamic religion as seen in documentaries.
Medical Geography: It studies the processes and events that bring about diseases and epidemics with regards to their geographical location, origin and distribution.
As an instance, you may have heard about the geographical study and distribution of the disease 'COVID-19'. (Coronavirus is a case study here).
We have 3 main types or classes of rock based on how they are formed. These are:
1. Igneous Rock
2. Sedimentary Rock
3. Metamorphic Rock
Igneous rocks are formed when molten substances below the earth surface cools down and solidifies. These molten substances are called magma or lava. Magma can be derived from melting of existing rocks on the earth crust.
The solidification of molten magma into igneous rock may be below the earth's surface (intrusive) or on the earth's surface (extrusive), giving rise to the two types of igneous rock.
Intrusive Igneous Rock: These are igneous rocks that crystallizes below the earth’s surface. They generally cool slowly during the process of solidification and tend to produce large crystals.
Intrusive Igneous Rocks are also referred to as plutonic igneous rocks. Examples are gabbro, granite and pegmatite.
Extrusive Igneous Rock: They are igneous rocks that form when molten magma erupts on top of the earth's surface. They cool down and solidify quickly, producing small crystals in the process. Sometimes, the molten magma cools so quickly, allowing no time for crystals to grow. This rapid cooling results in the formation of an amorphous glass.
Extrusive Igneous Rocks are also referred to as volcanic igneous rocks. Examples are basalt, rhyolite and scoria.
Sedimentary rocks amount to about 76% of the earth's surface. They can be formed in different ways. These are:
By the deposition of the weathered remains of pre-existing rocks and their subsequent transportation and deposition. Sedimentary rocks formed in this way are known as clastic sedimentary rock.
By the accumulation and lithification of sediment or detrital rock.
By their precipitation from solution. Sedimentary rocks formed in this way are known as chemical sedimentary rock.
As a result of biogenic activities. Sedimentary rocks formed in this way are known as organic sedimentary rock.